WikiWoordenboek:Lijst van Proto-Indo-Europese wortels

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Deze lijst is overgenomen van de Engels Wikitionary en behoeft vertaling en bijwerking.

The following is a list of Proto-Indo-European roots, given with their basic meaning and notable cognates in Indo-European languages.

Note that only roots are listed here; see Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European nouns for nominal stems. See also w:Proto-Indo-European pronouns and particles and w:Proto-Indo-European numerals.

b[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*bak- staf, stok Gk. βακτηρία (baktēria), Lat. baculum, Ir. bacc/bac, Welsh bach, Lith. bakstelėti, Ltv. bakstīt (peil, pegel)
*bel- kracht, macht Skr. बल (bala), Gk. βελτίων (beltiōn), Ir. adbal/dibeal, Welsh balch, Russ. большой (bol'šoj), Kamviri bâlim, Phryg. balaios, Low German pal, OCS boljĭjĭ, Lat. dēbĭlis pal?

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Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*bʰabʰ-eH₂- boon Old Prussian babo, Russ. боб (bob), Polish bób, Alb. bathë, Gm. bona/Bohne, Eng. bēan/bean, Welsh ffâen, ON baun, Lat. faba boon
*bʰar-es- spelt Phryg. brisa, Eng. bærlic/barley, Oscan far, Umbrian far, Lat. farina, Welsh bara, Goth. barizīns, ON barr, OCS brašĭno
*bʰardʰ-eH₂- baard Lith. barzda, Ltv. bārda, Eng. beard/beard, Gm. bart/Bart, Welsh barf, Polish broda, Russ. борода (boroda), ON barðr, Crimean Gothic bars, Lat. barba baard
*bʰeH₂go- beuk Gm. buohha/Buche, Lat. fāgus, Gk. φηγός (phēgos), Eng. bēce/beech, ON bók, Gaul. Bāgācon, Russ. бузина (buzina), Polish buk, Gothic boka beuk
*bʰei- bij Eng. bēo/bee, Lith. bitė, Ltv. bite, Ir. bech/bech, Russ. пчела (pčela), Gm. bīa/Biene, Polish pszczoła, Alb. bletë, Old Prussian bitte, Welsh begegyr, Gaul. bekos, ON bý, OCS Lat. fūcus bij
*bʰel- licht, helder Gaul. Belenos, Lith. blagnytis; baltas, Ltv. balts, Skr. भर्ग (bharga); भालम् (bhālam), Phryg. falos, Alb. ballë, Illyr. balta, Arm. բալ (bal/pal), Gk. φλέγω (phlegō); φαλός (phalos), ON bāl; blár; bleikr, Russ. белый (belyj), Polish biały, Eng. blæcern/; blǣcan/bleach; blǣwen/, Gm. blecken/blecken; bleich/bleich; blāo/blau, Goth. bala, Ir. beltene/bealtaine; blár/, Welsh bal; blawr, Thrac. balios, Old Prussian ballo, Lat. flagrāre; flāvus, Oscan Flagiúi; Flaviies, Toch. pälk/pälk bleek
*bʰel- bloeien Lat. folium; flos, Gk. φύλλον (phullon), Eng. blōstm/blossom, Ir. bláth/, Gm. bluomo/Blume, ON blómi, Toch. pält/pilta, Welsh blawd, Goth. blōma, Oscan Fluusaí, Alb. bulë bloem, bloesem
*bʰenǵʰ dik Gm. bungo/, Ltv. biezs, Toch. /pkante, Hitt. panku, Gk. παχύς/ (pakhus/), Skr. बहु (bahu), Av. bązah, ON bingr ?
*bʰer- bruin, shining Ltv. bērs; bebrs, Lith. bėras; bebras, Old Prussian bebrus, Gaul. Bibrax, Welsh befer, Eng. brūn/brown; bera/bear; beofer/beaver, Gm. brūn/braun; bero/Bär; bibar/Biber, ON brúnn; bjǫrn; bjórr, Skr. भाति (bhāti), Av. bawra, Lat. fiber, Russ. бобр (bobr), Toch. parno/perne; parä/perne bruin
*bʰer- dragen Skr. भरति (bharati), Av. baraiti, Russ. беру (beru), Ir. berim/beirim, Welsh cymmeryd, Arm. բերել (berel/perel), Alb. bie, Gk. φέρω (pherō), Lat. fero, Umbrian fertu, Eng. beran/bear, Gm. burde/Burde, Toch. pär/pär, Lith. berti, Ltv. bērt, Kamviri bor, Phryg. ber, Goth. bairan, ON bera, OCS berǫ, Pers. baratuv/bār, Polish brać, Hitt. pē-har(k) geboren
*bʰer- koken Russ. бурлить (burlit'), Alb. burmë, Gaul. Voberā, Ir. bréo/, Welsh beru, Eng. brǣþ/breath, Gm. brādam/Brodem, ON bráðr, Gk. φύρδην μίγδην (phurdēn-migdēn), Skr. भुरति (bhurati) braden?
*bʰeres- levendig Russ. борзой (borzoj), Lith. bruzdus, Gaul. brys, Ir. bras/, Polish bardzo, OCS brŭzŭ, Lat. festīnō
*bʰerǵʰ- fort Russ. берег (bereg), Eng. burg/borough, Arm. բարձրութիւն (bardzrut'iun/partsrut'iun), Skr. बर्हयति (barhayati), Av. bərəzant, Gaul. Bergusia, Gm. berg/Burg, Hitt. parku, Toch. pärk/pärk, Welsh bre, Thrac. Berga, Goth. baírgahī, ON bjarg; borg, Pers. /burj, Ir. brí/, Illyr. Berginium, Greek πύργος, Welsh bera, Lyc. prije; pruwa, Lat. fortis, burg, burcht
*bʰerǵʰ- verbergen, beschermen OCS brĕgą, Russ. беречь (bereč'), Eng. byrgan/bury, ON bjarga, Goth. bairgan, Gm. bergan/bergen bergen
*bʰeudʰ- wakker worden, opstaan Skr. बोधति (bodhati); बुद्ध (buddha), Lith. budinti, Ltv. budīt, Old Prussian budē, Av. buiðyeiti, Ir. buide/buidhe, Welsh bodd, ON bjóða; boð, Gk. πυνθάνομαι (punthanomai), Eng. bēodan/bid; bodian/bode, Kamviri bidi, Russ. будить (budit'), Polish budzić, OCS bljudo, Gm. biotan/bieten; gibot/Gebot, Goth. anabiudan, Pers. /bēdār-šudan bieden
*bʰeuH₂- (*bʰeuH₂mi [1ps]) verschijnen, worden, oprichten Skr. भू (bhū); भवति (bhavati), Lith. būti, Ltv. būt, Old Prussian būton, Russ. быть (byt'), Ir. buith/beith, Eng. beon/be, Gm. bim/bin, Kamviri bu, Polish być, Welsh bod, Gk. φύομαι (phuomai), Old Prussian būton, Oscan fiiet, Umbrian fust, Pers. būmī/bum, Av. bavaiti, Alb. buj, Arm. բոյս (boys/poys), Illyr. Bumi, Thrac. Kasibounon, Goth. bauan, Gaul. Vindobios, Toch. pyotk/pyautk, ON búa, OCS Lat. fuī ben
*bʰleH₁- to bleat Alb. blegë, Lith. bliauti, Ltv. blēt, Eng. blǣtan/bleat, Gk. βελάζο (belazō), Russ. блеять (blejat'), Lat. fleō blaten
*bʰlēiǵ to shine Ltv. bližģēt, Lith. blaikštytis, Eng. blīcan/, Gm. blīhhan/Blech, ON blíkja, Russ. блеск (blesk), OCS bliskŭ blijken, blikkeren
*bʰosó- naakt Russ. босой (bosoj), Lith. basas, Ltv. bass, Arm. բոկ (bok/pog), Eng. bær/bare, ON berr, Goth. bazis, Gk. ψιλός (psilos), Polish boso, Gm. bar/bar, OCS bosŭ bar, barrevoets
*bʰred- to wade Alb. bredh, Ltv. brist; bridu, Lith. bristi; bredu, Russ. бреду (bredu), Polish brnąć, Thrac. Bredai
*bʰruH- balk, brug Gaul. brīva, Eng. brycg/bridge, Gm. brugga/Brücke, ON brú, Russ. бревно (brevno), Polish birzwno, OCS brĭvŭno brug
*bʰruH- brow Skr. भ्रू (bhrū), Lith. bruvis, Ir. bru/bruach, Eng. brū/brow, Russ. бровь (brov'), XMK abroutes, Gk. ὀφρύς (ophrus), Gm. /Braue, Toch. Old Prussian wubri, Polish brew, OCS bruvi, ON brún, Pers. /abru wenkbrauw
*bʰréh₂tēr broeder, broer Arm. եղբայր (ełbayr/yeġbayr/yeġpayr), Eng. brōþor/brother, Kashmiri boy, Umbrian fratrom, Gk. φράτηρ (phrātēr), Toch. pracer/procer, Kamviri bo, Russ. брат (brat), Gm. bruoder/Bruder, Welsh brawd, Skr. भ्रातृ (bhrāt), Ir. bráthir/bráthair, Lith. brolis, Ltv. brālis, Gaul. brātir, Pers. brātar/barādar, Phryg. brater, Illyr. bra, Goth. brōþar, ON bróðir, Old Prussian brāti, OCS Osset. ærvad/, Av. brātar, Oscan fratrúm, Polish brat, Venetic vhraterei, Lyd. brafr-, Kurd. bra, Lat. frāter broeder, broer
*bʰudʰ-no-, *bʰudʰ-mn̥- bodem Skr. बुध्न (budhna), Av. bŭnō, Arm. բուն (bun/pun), Ir. bond/bonn, Gk. πυθμήν (puthmēn), Lat. fundus, Gm. bodam/boden, Eng. botm/bottom, ON botn, Welsh bôn, Pers. /bun bodem
*bʰuHgos- geit Av. būza. Pers. /buz, Arm. բուզ (buz/puz), Ir. bocc/boc, Welsh bwch, ON bukkr, Eng. buc/buck, Gm. boc/Bock, Gaul. bucca bok
*bʰérH₁ǵo- berk Russ. берёза (berjoza), Polish brzoza, Lith. beržas, Ltv. bērzs, Osset. bärz, Skr. भूर्ज (bhūrja), Gm. birihha/Birke, ON bjǫrk, Old Prussian berse, Eng. birce/birch, Thrac. berzas, OCS breza, Lat. frāxinus, Alb. bredh berk

d[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*deh₁- to bind Alb. duaj, Gk. δεσμός (desmos), Skr. द्यति (dyati), Av. nīdyātąm
*deh₂iwer- husband's brother Skr. देवर (devara), Russ. деверь (dever'), Polish dziewierz, Lith. dieveris, Ltv. dieveris, Gm. zeihhur/—, Eng. tācor/—, Gk. Arm. տայգր (taygr/daykr), OCS dĕverĭ, Kurd. diš
*deh₃- to give Russ. дать; давать (dat'; davat'), Arm. տալ (tal/dal), Lith. duoti, Ltv. dot; deva, Skr. दा (dā); ददाति (dadāti), Av. dadāiti, Osset. daettyn, Alb. dhashë, Gk. δίδωμι (didōmi), Kashmiri dyūn, Polish dać, Phryg. dadón, Old Prussian dātwei, Lat. dare, Oscan dede, Umbrian dadad, Ir. dán/, Welsh dawn, Hitt. dā, Lyc. da, Luw. da-, Lyd. da-, Gaul. doenti, OCS Pers. dadātuv/dādan
*dem-h₂- to domesticate, tame Skr. दाम्यति (dāmyati), Gk. damnanai, Ir. damnaim/, Hitt. damaašzi, Av. dam, Lat. domāre, Eng. tam/tame, Gm. zemmen/zähmen, Goth. gatamjan, ON temja, Osset. domun, Pers. /dām, Welsh addef
*deuk- to lead Alb. nduk, Eng. togian/tow, Gm. ziohan/ziehen, Goth. tiuhan, ON toginn, Gk. ἀδευκής/ (adeukēs/), Lat. dūcō
*deḱs- right (direction) Gaul. Dexsiva, Lat. dexter, Umbrian destrame, Lith. dešinė, Av. dašina, Alb. djathtë, Gm. zeso/, Welsh deheu, Oscan destrst, Gk. δεξιός (deksios), Skr. दक्षिण (dakšiṇa), Goth. taíhswa, Ir. dech/, Toch. täk/, OCS desnaya; desnŭ, Russ. десница (desnitsa), Kashmiri dchūn
*dhǵʰyes- yesterday Eng. geostran/yesterday, Alb. dje, Skr. ह्यस् (hyas), Av. zyō, Pers. diyaka/dīg, Gk. χθές (khthes), Lat. herī, Welsh ddoe, Ir. indhé/an(d)é, Goth. gistradagis, ON í gǽr, Gm. gesteron/gestern
*dlegʰ- to engage oneself Ir. dliged/dlígheadh, Welsh dyled, Eng. plegian/play; pliht/plight, Gm. pflegan/pflegen; pfliht/Pflicht, Lat. indulgēre; plevium, Russ. долг (dolg), Polish dług, OCS dlŭgŭ
*dluH₂gʰó- long Hitt. dalugaes, Russ. долгий (dolgij), Lith. ilgas, Ltv. ilgs, Skr. दीर्घ (dīrgha), Av. darəga, Welsh dala, Lat. longus, Gaul. Loggostalētes, Pers. darga/derāz, Eng. lang/long; lencten/lent, Gm. lang/lang; lenzo/Lenz, ON langr, Goth. laggs, Alb. gjatë, Gk. δολιχός (dolikhos), Old Prussian ilgi, Ir. long/, OCS Polish długi, Welsh dal, Kashmiri dūr
* tongue Lat. lingua, Ir. tenge/teanga, Eng. tunge/tongue, Goth. tuggo, ON tunga, Skr. जिह्वा (jihvā), Av. hizvā, Russ. язык (jazyk) Lith. liežuvis, Arm. լեզու (lezu), Gm. zunga/Zunge, Welsh tafod, Kamviri dic, Pers. hizbāna/zabān, Old Prussian insuwis, Toch. käntu/kantwo
*dom-, *dóm-o- house Skr. दम (dama), Av. dąm, Gk. δόμος (domos), Lat. domus, Russ. дом (dom), Polish dom, Eng. timber/timber, Gm. zimbar/Zimmer, ON timbr, Umbrian dâmoa, Arm. տուն (tun/dun), Lith. namas, Ltv. nams, Welsh tŷ, Toch. tam/täm
*dous- forearm Skr. दोस्(dos), Av. daoš, Ir. doít/doíd, Lith. dilbis, Ltv. paduse, Russ. пазуха (pazuxa), Pers. /doš
*dra- to run Skr. द्राति (drāti), Russ. удирать (udirat'), Gk. ἀπόδρασις (apodrasis); δρόμος (dromos), Illyr. Dravos, Lith. drebėti, Gm. /Trappel, Goth. anatrimpan, Av. draonah
*drem- to sleep Russ. дремать (dremat'), Skr. द्रायति (drāyati), Gk. δαρθάνω/ (darthanō/), Lat. dormiō, Arm. տարտամ (tartam/dardam), Polish drzemać, OCS dremlju
*dus- to fail Skr. दुष्यति (duyati), Av. duš, Gk. δέω (deō), Ir. do-/, Arm. ետեւը (etevĕ/yetevĕ/yedevĕ), Goth. tuz-, ON tjón, Eng. tēona/, Gm. zur-/, OCS dŭždĭ, Russ. дождь (dožd'), Polish deszcz, Pers. dušiyaram/,
* two Arm. երկու (erku/yerku/yergu), Alb. dy/dy, Lith. du/dvi, Ltv. divi, Gaul. vo, Gm. zwene/zwei, Eng. twā/two, Gk. δύο (duō), Av. duua, Hitt. dā-, Ir. dá/dó, Kashmiri zū', Lyc. tuwa, Kamviri dü, Lat. duo, Oscan dus, ON tveir, Old Prussian dwāi, Osset. dyuuæ/duuæ, Pers. duva/do, OCS Polish dwa, Russ. два (dva), Skr. द्व (dva), Toch. wu/wi, Umbrian tuf, Goth. twai, Welsh dau
*dáḱru- tear
(drop from eye)
Gk. δάκρυ (dakru), Gm. zahar/Zähre, Eng. tēar/tear, Skr. अश्रु (aśru), Old Lat. decrimare, Lat. lacrĭma, Lith. ašara, Ltv. asara, Welsh deigryn, Ir. dér/déar, Toch. ākär/akrūna, Goth. tagr, ON tár, Arm. արչունք (arc'unk'), Av. asrūazan
*déi-no- day Russ. день (den'), Ir. denus/, Lith. diena, Ltv. diena, Skr. दिन (dina), Lat. diēs, Alb. gdhin, Welsh dydd, Polish dzień, Ir. día/dia, Goth. sintīns, Old Prussian deinan, Eng. lencten/lent, Gm. lenzo/Lenz, OCS
*déiw-o- god, i.e. 'shining' Skr. देव (deva), Av. daēva, Lat. deus, Lith. dievas, Ltv. dievs, Old Prussian deiws, Oscan diúveí, Umbrian di, Gaul. Dēvona, Gk. Ζεύς (Zeus), Phryg. tios, Russ. диво (divo), Polish dziw, Kamviri di, Eng. Tiw/Tuesday, Gm. Ziu/—, ON Týr, Goth. Tyz, Welsh duw, Ir. día/día, Lyc. ziw, Luw. tiwat-, Lyd. Divi-, Palaic tiyaz, Arm. տիվ (tiv/div)
* ten Arm. տասն (tasn)/տաս (tas)/տասը (dasĕ), Alb. dhjetë/dhetë, Lith. dešimt, Ltv. desmit, Gaul. decam, Gm. zēhen/zehn, Dacian dece-, Eng. tīen/ten, Gk. δέκα (deka), Av. dasa, Ir. deich/deich, Kashmiri da.h, Kamviri duc, Lat. decem, Oscan deken, ON tíu, Old Prussian desīmtan, Osset. dæs/dæs, Pers. daθa/dah, OCS Polish dziesięć, Russ. десять (desjat'), Skr. दश (daśa), Toch. śäk/śak, Umbrian desem, Goth. taihun, Welsh deg
* tree Arm. ծառ (ca/dza), Lith. derva, Ltv. dreve, Gaul. Dervus, Russ. дерево (derevo), Eng. trēow/tree, Hitt. taru, Luw. tarweja-, Gk. δρῦς (drus), Lat. durus, Alb. dru/drû, Ir. dair/dair, Toch. or, Kamviri dâa, Pers. /deraxt, Polish drzewo, Welsh derwen, Skr. दारु (dāru), Av. dāuru, Goth. triu, ON tré, Old Prussian drawine, OCS XMK darullos

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Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*dʰal- to blossom Alb. dal, Arm. դալար (dalar/talar), Gk. θάλλω (thallō), Welsh dail, Ir. duille/
*dʰeb- fat Russ. дебелый (debelyj), Old Prussian debīkan, Toch. tpär/täpr, ON dapr, Gm. taphar/tapfer, Ltv. dabļš, OCS
*dʰegʷh- to burn Lith. degti, Ltv. degt, Lat. fovēre, Russ. дёготь;сжигать; жгучий (diogot'; sžigat'; žgučij), Alb. djek, Ir. daig/, Skr. दहति (dahati), Av. dažaiti, Old Prussian dagis, Pers. /dāġ, Gk. τέφρα (tephra), Toch. tsäk/tsäk, OCS Polish żgę, Eng. dǣg/day
*dʰeh₁(i)- to suck/suckle Alb. djathë, Arm. դիեմ (diem/tiem), Lith. dėlė, Ltv. dēls, Old Prussian dadan, Ir. diul/diuilim, Welsh dynu, Eng. delu/—, Gm. tāen/—; tila/—, Goth. daddjan, ON dilkr, Skr. धयति (dhayati), Av. daēnu, Pers. dadan/, Lat. fēmina; fētus; fēllāre, Umbrian feliuf, Gk. θηλύ (thēlē); θῆλυς (thēlus), OCS Russ. доить (doit'), Polish doić
*dʰeh₁- to place, set, put Skr. दधाति (dadhāti), Av. daðaiti, Lat. faciō, Oscan faciiad, Umbrian feitu, Hitt. dai, Pers. adadā/, Gk. τίθημι/ (tithēmi/), Lith. dėti, Ltv. dēt, Polish dziać; działać, Russ. деть; делать (det'; delat'), Eng. dōn/do, Gm. tuon/tun, Goth. gadeths, ON dalidun, Phryg. dak-, Gaul. dede, Thrac. didzos, Alb. ndonj, Toch. täs/täs, Welsh dall, Arm. դնել (dnel/tnel), Lyc. ta-, OCS
*dʰeiǵʰ- to mold Gk. τεῖχος (teikhos), Ir. digen/, Russ. дежа (deža), Eng. dāg/dough, Goth. daigs, ON deig, Gm. teig/Teig, Skr. दिह् (dih); देग्धि (degdhi), Lat. fingere, Av. pairidaēza, Pers. didā/dēz, Arm. դեզ (dez/tez), Thrac. -dizos, Umbrian fikla, Lith. žiest, Ltv. ziest, Old Prussian siduko, Oscan feíhúss, Toch. tsek/tsik
*dʰel- light Alb. diell, Arm. դեղլն (dełin/deġin/teġin), Eng. deall/, ON Dellingr, Ir. dellrad/
*dʰergʰen- thorn Skr. द्राक्ष (drāka), Gm. tirnpauma/dirnbaum, Welsh draen, Ir. draigen/droigheann, Lith. drignės, Ltv. driģenes, Russ. дёрн (djorn), Polish drzazga
*dʰers- to dare Skr. धृष्णोति (dhoti), Russ. дерзнуть; дерзкий (derznut'; derzkij), Lat. infestus, OCS Old Prussian dyrsos, Eng. dearr/dare, Gm. giturran/—; gitar/, Gk. θράσος (thrasos), Lith. drįsti, Ltv. drošs, Pers. adaršnauš, Av. daršam, Goth. gadars
*dʰeub- deep Lith. dubti, Ltv. dubens, Gaul. Dubnorīx, Illyr. dubris, Goth. diups, ON diupr, Eng. dēop/deep, Gk. βυθός (buthos), Gm. tiof/tief, Welsh dwfn, Ir. domain/, OCS Russ. дно; дупло (dno; duplo), Polish dno
*dʰrei- to defecate Russ. дристать (dristat'), ON dríta, Lith. dergti, Gk. δαρδαίνει (dardainei), Lat. foria, Gm. trīzan/
*dʰreugʰ- to deceive Lith. draugas, Ltv. draugs, ON draugr, Skr. द्रुह्यति (druhyati), Av. družaiti, Eng. drēam/dream, Gm. troum/Traum, Pers. drauga/, Ir. aurddrach/
*dʰugH₂-tér- daughter Skr. दुहितृ (duhit), Gk. θυγάτηρ (thugatēr), Toch. ckācar/tkacer, Eng. dohtor/daughter, OCS Russ. дочь; дочерь (doč'; dočer'), Arm. դուստր (dustr/tusdr), Gm. tohter/Tochter, Kamviri jü, Gaul. duxtīr, Pers. /doxtar, Lith. duktė, Old Prussian duckti, ON dóttir, Goth. dauhtar, Av. duydar, Luw. duttariyata, Hitt. duttariyatiyaš, Oscan futreí
*dʰuH₁-mo- smoke Skr. धूम (dhūma), Old Prussian dumis, Russ. дым (dym), Lat. fūmus, Gm. toup/toben, Gk. θυμός (thumos), Toch. twe/tweye, Lith. dūmai, Ltv. dūmi, Eng. dōmian/dusk, Goth. dauns, ON daunn, Ir. dé/deathach, Welsh dywy, Oscan Mefit, Polish dym, Pers. /dud, OCS
*dʰwer- door Arm. դուռն (dun/)դուռ (du/tu), Russ. дверь (dver'), Skr. द्वार् (dvār), Av. dvarəm, Alb. derë, ON dyrr, Eng. duru/door, Gaul. doro, Gk. θύρα (thura), Lith. durys, Ltv. durvis, Old Prussian dwaris, Lat. fores, Umbrian furo, Gm. tor/Tür, Ir. dorus/doras, Toch. —/twere, Kamviri du, Umbrian furo, Welsh dôr, Goth. daur, Polish drzwi, Pers. duvaraya/dar, Thrac. dur, OCS
* earth Phryg. zemelo; zamelon, Thrac. semele; semela, Pers. zam, Skr. क्ष (ka), Gk. χθών (khthōn), Lat. humus, Goth. guma, ON gumi, Eng. guma/bridegroom, Gm. gomo/Bräutigam, Alb. dhè, OCS Russ. земля (zemlja), Ir. du/duine, Hitt. tekan, Luw. dakam-, Toch. tkam/ke, Kashmiri za.min, Lith. žemė, Ltv. zeme, Old Prussian same, Welsh dyn, Oscan huntruis, Umbrian hondomu, Pers. zamin, Osset. zæxx/, Polish ziemia
*dʰǵʰu- fish Lith. žuvis, Ltv. zivs, Arm. ձուկն (dzukn/) ձուկ (dzuk/cug), Gk. ἰχθύς (ikhthus), Old Prussian suckis

ǵ[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*ǵebʰ- jaw Lith. žebenkštė, Ltv. zebiekste, Russ. зоб (zob), Ir. gopchóel/gob, Gm. /Kiefer, Eng. ceafl/jowl, ON keptr, Av. zafana
*ǵeme- to marry Skr. जामातर् (jāmātar), Av. zāmātar, Gk. γαμβρός (gambros), Lat. gener
*ǵenH₁- (*ǵénH₁ō [1ps]) to give birth Gk. γένος (genos), Lat. genus, Eng. cyn/kin; cyning/king, Gm. kind/Kind; kuning/König, Russ. зять (zjat'), Av. zīzənti, Skr. जाति (jāti), Kamviri zut, Thrac. zenis, Phryg. cin, Ir. adgainemmar/geinim, Goth. kuni, Lith. gimdyti, Ltv. znots, Welsh geni, Gaul. Cintugnātus, ON kind; konungr, Pers. /zāēdan, Hitt. genzu, Arm. ծնել (cnel/dznel), Toch. kän/kän, Alb. dhëndër/dhândër, Oscan Genetaí, Umbrian natine, OCS zętĭ
*ǵenu- cheek Lat. gena, Welsh genou, Gk. γένυς (genus), Goth. kinnus, Skr. हनु (hanu), Av. zanu, Lith. žandas, Ltv. zods, Phryg. azon, Toch. śanwem/, Arm. ծնօտ (cnōt/dznōd), Eng. cin/chin, Gm. chinni/Kinn, Ir. gin/gionach, ON kinn, Pers. /goune(h), XMK kanadoi
*ǵeus- taste Lat. dēgūnō, Goth. kiusan, Gm. kiosan/kiesen, Skr. जोषति (joati), Av. zaošō, Alb. dashur, Polish gust, Eng. ceosan/choose, Pers. dauš/, Ir. asagussim/—, Gk. γεύομαι (geuomai)
*ǵH₂lōu- brother's wife OCS zlŭva, Russ. золовка (zolovka), Gk. γάλως (galōs), Phryg. gelaros, Polish zełwa
*ǵneH₃- to know Lat. cognoscō, OCS Russ. знать (znat'), Polish znać, Lith. žinoti, Ltv. zināt, Skr. जानाति (jānāti), Av. paitizānənti, Eng. cnāwan/know, Toch. knān/nān, Ir. /gnath, Gk. γιγνώσκω (gignōskō), Alb. njeh, Hitt. kanes, Arm. ծանօթ (canōt'/dzanōt'), Kashmiri zānun, Osset. zon, Gm. kunnan/können; irchennan/kennen, Pers. xšnāsātiy/, ON kunna; kenna, Old Prussian posinnāts, Goth. kunnan; kannjan, Umbrian naratu, Welsh gnawd
*ǵr̥H₁-no- corn Lat. grānum, Ir. grán/grán, OCS Russ. зерно (zerno), Polish ziarno, Lith. žirnis, Ltv. zirnis, Gm. kerno/Korn, Welsh grawn, Eng. corn/corn, Old Prussian syrne, ON korn, Goth. kaúrn
*ǵénu- knee Lat. genū, Russ. звено (zveno), Hitt. gienu, Palaic ginu-, Gk. γόνυ (gonu), Skr. जानु (jānu), Illyr. Genusus, Gm. kniu/Knie, Pers. /zānu, Eng. cnēo/knee, ON kne, Goth. kniu, Av. žnūm, Toch. kanwe/kenīne, Arm. ծունկ (cunk/dzung)
*ǵómbʰo- ledge->tooth Lat. gemma, Gk. γόμφος (gomphos), Skr. जम्भ (jambha), Lith. žambas, Ltv. zobs, Alb. dhëmb/dhamb, XMK kombous, Eng. comb/comb, Toch. kam/keme, Russ. зуб (zub), Arm. ծամել (camel/dzamel), Kamviri zâmoa, Polish gęba/ząb, ON kambr, Gm. kamb/Kamm, OCS

ǵʰ[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*ǵʰans- goose Gk. χήν (khēn), Skr. हंस (hasa), Lat. ānser, Ir. géiss/, Eng. gōs/goose, Russ. гусь (gus'), Lith. žąsis, Ltv. zoss, Gm. gans/Gans, Old Prussian sansy, Goth. gansus, ON gás, Av. zā, Polish gęś, Pers. /ġāz gans
*ǵʰasdʰo- stick Russ. жердь (žerd'), Ir. gat, Goth. gazds, ON gaddr, Eng. gād/goad, Gm. gart/Gart
*ǵʰasto- stick Lat. hasta, Umbrian hostatu, Ir. gass/gas, Lith. lazda
*ǵʰel- to shine Lat. helvus; fel, Lith. gelta; žalias; želta, Ltv. dzeltens; zaļš; zelts, Russ. жёлтый; зелёный; золото (žëltyj; zelënyj; zoloto), Gm. gelo/gelb; gold/Gold, Phryg. zelkia, Eng. geolu/yellow; gold/gold, Alb. dhelpër/dhelpën, Welsh glan, Ir. gel/gealach, Polish żółty; zielony; złoto, Gk. χλωρός (khlōros), ON gulr; gull, Pers. /zard; daraniya/, Av. zaray; zaranya, Goth. gulþ, Skr. हरि (hari); हिरण्य (hiraya), Old Prussian gelatynan; saligan; sealtmeno, OCS зльтъ (zlĭtŭ); зєлєнъ (zelenŭ); злато; (zlato) geel, goud
*ǵʰelun-eH₂- pine Gk. χεῖλος (kheilos), Arm. ջելուն (jelun/čelun), ON giolnar, Lith. pušis, Ir. /giúis
*ǵʰer- bowels Lat. hernia, Skr. हिर (hira), Gk. χορδή (khordē), ON gǫrn, Gm. garn/Garn, Eng. gearn/yarn, Arm. ջառ (ja/ča), Lith. žarna, Ltv. zarna, Hitt. karat
*ǵʰer- to enclose Lith. gardas; žardas, Ltv. zārds, Phryg. gordum, Lat. hortus, Skr. हरति (harati), Welsh garth, Eng. geard/yard, Gm. garto/Garten, ON garðr, Gk. χόρτος (khortos), Ir. /gort, Oscan herííad, Gaul. gorto, Hitt. gurtas, Goth. garda, Alb. gardh, Russ. город (gorod) gaard
*ǵʰers- rigid Alb. derr, Skr. हर्षते (harate), Av. zaršayamna, Arm. ձար (dzar/car), Gk. χέρσος (khersos), Lat. horrēo, Ir. garb/garbh, Welsh garw, Eng. gorst/
*ǵʰeu- pour Lat. fūtis, Gk. χύνω (khunō), Skr. जुहोति (juhoti), Goth. giutan, Gm. giozan/giessen, Eng. guttas/gut, ON gjóta, Arm. ձուլել (dzulel/culel), Av. zaotar, Pers. /zōr, Toch. ku/ku, Phryg. Zeuman; *ǵʰuto- "poured, libated" gieten
*ǵʰwel- to bend Ltv. nuožvelnus, Ltv. zvelt, Russ. злой (zloj), Polish zły, Skr. ह्वरति (hvarati), Av. zbarəmnəm, Pers. /zūr
*ǵʰwen- to sound OCS Russ. звон (zvon), Arm. ձայն (dzayn/cayn), Alb. zë/zâ, Toch. ka/kene, Polish dzwon, Lith. žvengti, Ltv. zviegt
*ǵʰwer- beast Lat. ferus, OCS Russ. зверь (zver'), Lith. žvėris. Ltv. zvērs, Gk. θήρ (thēr), Polish zwierzę, Old Prussian swīrins, Toch. śaru/śerwe
*ǵʰéi-mn̥- winter Skr. हेमन्त (hemanta), Lat. hiems, Gk. χεῖμα (kheima), Gaul. Giamillus, OCS Russ. зима (zima), Polish zima, Lith. žiema, Ltv. ziema, Old Prussian semo, Av. zimo, Arm. ձմեռ (dzme/cme), Alb. dimër/dimën, Kamviri z, Pers. /zemestān, Toch. śärme/śimpriye, Welsh gaeaf, Ir. gaimred/geimhreadh, Hitt. gima, ON gói, Pers. /dai
*ǵʰés-ro- hand Skr. हस्त (hasta), Av. zasta, Lith. pažastis, Lat. praesto, Hitt. kessar, Lyc. izre, Luw. iššari-, Gk. χείρ (kheir), Arm. ձեռք (dzek'/cek'), Kamviri düšt, Alb. dorë

g[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*gal- naked Gm. kalo/kahl, OCS glava, Russ. голый (golyj), Lith. galva, Ltv. galva, Polish goły, Old Prussian gallū, Eng. calu/callow
*gang- to mock Skr. गञ्ज (gañja), Eng. canc/, Gk. γαγγαίνειν/ (gaggainein/), Russ. гугня (gugnja), Ir. géim/, OCS gǫgŭnivŭ
*gel- cold OCS hlad, Lat. gelū, Oscan gelan, Eng. ceald/cold, Lith. gelmenis, Gm. kalt/kalt, Russ. холод (xolod), Polish chłód, Gk. γελανδρόν (gelandron), ON kaldr, Goth. kalds
*ger- crane Gk. γέρανος (geranos), Lat. grūs, Arm. կրունկ (krunk/grung), Gm. krano/Kranich, Eng. cran/crane, Lith. garnis, Ltv. dzērve, Old Prussian gerwe, Russ. журавль (žuravl'), Polish żuraw, Welsh garan, ON trana
*gerbʰ- to scratch Russ. жребий (žrebij), Old Prussian gīrbin, Gk. γράφω (graphō), Gm. kerban/kerben, Eng. ceorfan/carve, Arm. կերել (kerel/gerel), Alb. gërvish, Ltv. grīpsta, OCS žrĕbŭ
*glag- milk Gk. γάλα (gala), Lat. lac, Hitt. galank, Kamviri zu
*grabʰ- hornbeam/oak Russ. граб (grab), Polish grab, Lith. skroblas, Ltv. skābardis, Umbrian Graboui, XMK grabion
*grad- hail Russ. град (grad), Lith. gruodas, Arm. կարկուտ (karkut/gargud), Polish grad, OCS gradŭ
*gras- to gnaw Gk. γράω (graō), Skr. ग्रसति (grasati), Russ. грызть (gryzt'), Lat. grānem
*gwéri- millstone Arm. երկան (erkan/yerkan/yergan), Skr. ग्रावन् (grāvan), Welsh breuan, Eng. cweorn/quern, Gm. quirn/Querne, ON kvern, Goth. qairnus, Ir. braó/, Lith. girna, Ltv. dzirnus, Old Prussian girnoywis, Russ. жёрнов (žjornov), Polish żarno

[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*gʰabʰ- to take Eng. giefan/give, Skr. गभस्ति (gabhasti), Alb. grabit/grabis, Gm. geban/geben, ON gefa, Goth. giban, Lat. habēre, Oscan hafíar, Umbrian habe, Ir. gaibid/, Welsh gafael, Lith. gabana, Ltv. gabana, Gaul. gabi, OCS gobino geven
*gʰaido- goat Lat. haedus, Goth. gaits, Gm. geiz/Geiss, ON geit, Eng. gāt/goat geit
*gʰedʰ- to join, to unite Lith. guodas, Ltv. gods, Eng. gōd/good, Gm. guot/gut, Goth. gōþs; gōds, ON gōðr, Skr. गध्य (gadhya), OCS godŭ, Russ. год (god), Polish gody, Toch. kātk/kātk goed
*gʰel- to call Eng. gellan/yell, Gk. χελιδών (khelidōn), Skr. प्रगल्भ (pragalbha), Goth. gōljan, Gm. gellan/gellen, Lith. gulbinti/, ON gjalla gillen
*gʰelōu- tortoise Gk. χελώνη (khelōnē), OCS želŭvĭ, Russ. жолвь (žolv'), Lith. želvė, Polish żółw
*gʰend- to take Alb. gjend, Eng. begetan/beget; forgetan/forget, Gm. firgezzen/vergessen, ON geta, Goth. bigitan, Gk. χανδάρω (khandarō), Ir. geind/geinn, Welsh gaing, Lat. prehendere vergeten
*gʰers- horror Lat. fastus, ON gersta, Lith. grasa, Ltv. grasīt, Russ. грозный (groznyj), Arm. գարշիմ (garšim/karšim), Av. grəəhma, Gm. gerstī/, Toch. krās/krās verschrikking
*gʰleu- to joke Eng. glēo/glee, Lith. glauda, Ltv. glaust, Gk. χλεύη (khleuē), ON glý, Russ. глум (glum), OCS bezŭ gluma ?
*gʰos-ti- stranger/guest Lat. hostis, OCS Russ. гость (gost'), Gm. gast/Gast, Goth. gasts, Polish gość, Eng. gæst/, ON gestr, Luw. gaši gast
*gʰouro- fear Skr. घोर (ghora), Goth. gaurs, Gm. gōrag/, Russ. журить (žurit'), Eng. gyrn/, ON gaurr ?
*gʰreH₁- to grow, to become green Eng. grōwan/grow; grēne/green; græs/grass, Gm. gruoen/— , gruoni/grün, gras/Gras, Goth. gras, ON groa; grænn; gras groeien, groen, gras
*gʰrendʰ- beam Lith. grindys, Ltv. grīda, ON grind, Polish grzęda, Russ. гряда (grjada), Kamviri uga, Eng. grindel/, Gm. grindil grendel
*gʰérsdʰo- barley Lat. hordeum, Gm. gersta/Gerste, Eng. gors/gorse, Alb. drithë, Gk. κρῖ (kri) gerst
*gʰwiH₁bʰ- pudenda Eng. wīf/wife; wīf-man/woman, Gm. wíb/Weib, ON víf, Toch. kip/kwīpe wijf

[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*gʷeH₂dʰ- to sink Gk. βάθος (bathos), Skr. गाहते (gāhate), Av. vigāθō, Ir. bádud/báthaim, Welsh boddi)zinken
*gʷeiH₃- sinew Lat. fīlum, OCS žitsa, Russ. жила (žila), Arm. jil/čil, Lith. gija, Ltv. dzija, Welsh giau, Polish żyła
*gʷeiH₃w- to live Skr. जीवति (jīvati), Lat. vivere, Lith. gyventi, Ltv. dzīvs, Old Prussian gi(j)wan, OCS žiti, Russ. жить (žit'), Polish żyć, Eng. cwicu/quick, ON kvikr, Gm. quec/keck, Goth. quis, Gk. βίος (bios), Ir. bethu/beatha, Welsh byd, Gaul. Biturīges, Pers. gaiθā/zēstan, Av. gaēθā; jiġaēsa, Toch. śo/śai, Arm. keam/geam, Oscan bivus leven
*gʷelbʰ- womb Eng. wamb/womb, Gm. wamba/Wamme, Goth. wamba, ON vomb, Skr. गर्भ (garbha), Gk. δελφύς (delphus), Lith. gimda,
*gʷem-, *gʷeH₂- to come Lat. veniō, Skr. जिगाति (jigāti), Av. jamaiti, Toch. kum/käm, Eng. cuman/come, Arm. yeki/yegi, Gm. coman/kommen, Kamviri âca, ON koma, Pers. jamijāh/, Goth. qiman, Oscan kúmbennieís, Lith. gimti, Ltv. dzimt, Old Prussian gimsenin, Alb. pregjim, Gk. βῆμα (bēma) komen
*gʷer- mount Russ. гора (gora), Lith. guras, Skr. गिरि (giri), Av. gairi, Gk. δειράς (deiras), Alb. gur, Arm. ler, Polish góra, OCS gora) beklimmen
*gʷer- to devour Alb. ngrënë/ngranë, Arm. ker/ger, Lith. gerti, Ltv. dzert, Ir. bráge/bráighid, Welsh breuant, Skr. गिरति (girati), Av. jaraiti, Gk. βορά (bora); βρῶμα (brōma), Lat. vorāre, Gm. quedar/Köder, ON krás, Russ. жрать (žrat'), Polish żreć verorberen
*gʷer- to praise Lat. grātēs, Russ. жрец (žrets), Alb. grish, Lith. girti, Ltv. dzirt, Skr. गृनाति (gnāti), Ir. bard/bárd, Old Prussian girtwei, Toch. krant-/krent-, Welsh bardd, Oscan brateis, Av. aibigərənte prijzen
*gʷerH₃- heavy Lat. gravis, Eng. cweorn/quern, Skr. गुरु (guru), Av. gouruzaθra, Lith. gurstu, Ltv. gurstu, Toch. krāmärts/krāmär, Gk. βάρος (baros), ON kvern, Goth. kaúrjōs, Pers. /girān, Welsh bryw, Ir. bair/, Old Prussian girnoywis, Gm. quirn/Querne, OCS žŭrnŭvi, Polish żarna, Russ. жёрнов (žjornov) ?
*gʷetu- resin Gm. kuti/Kitt, Eng. cudu/cud, ON kváða, Skr. जतु (jatu), Lat. bitūmen, Welsh bedwen, Scottish Gaelic beithe
*gʷou- cow/bull Skr. गो (go), Av. gáus, Ltv. govs, Russ. говядина (govjadina), Toch. ko/keŭ, Arm. kov/gov, Eng. cū/cow, Umbrian bum, Gk. βοῦς (bous), Ir. bó/bó, Welsh buw, Gm. kuo/Kuh, Kamviri go, Kashmiri gāv, Pers. —/gāv, Oscan buv-, ON kú, Osset. gal/ Thrac. bonassos koe/stier
*gʷrebʰ- womb Gk. βρέφος (brephos), Ir. brommach/, OCS Russ. жеребёнок (žerebjonok), Polish źrebię) baarmoeder
*gʷruHǵʰ- to bite Lith. graužti, Ltv. grauzt, Russ. грызть (gryzt'), Welsh brwyn, Polish gryźć, Alb. me gicë, Gk. βρύχω (brukhō), Ir. brón/brón, Arm. krcem/grdzem, OCS gryzǫ) bijten
**gʷḗn woman OCS Russ. жена (žena), Polish żona, Av. gənā, Gk. γυνή (gunē), Eng. cwēn/queen, Skr. ग्ना (gnā); जनि (jani), Old Prussian genno, Arm. kin/gin, Alb. zonjë, Ir. ben/bean, Welsh benyw, Kashmiri zanānū', Goth. qino, ON kona, Gm. quena/—, Pers. /zan, Phryg. bonekos, Toch. śä/śana, Luw. wanatti)

gʷʰ[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*gʷʰeleǵʰ- gland Arm. gełdzk'/geġdz/keġc, Lith. geležuones, Russ. железа (železa), Polish zołza ?blaas?
*gʷʰer- warm Alb. zjarr, Russ. жар (žar), Lith. garas, Ltv. gars, Phryg. germe, Arm. jerm/čerm, Eng. bearnan/burn, ON brenna, Gm. brinnan/brennen, Goth. brinnan, Gk. θερμός (thermos), Skr. घृण (ghṛṇa), Kashmiri germi, Thrac. germas, Pers. garmapada/garm, Ir. gorim/goraim, Hitt. war, Old Prussian goro, Av. garəma, Welsh gori, Kashmiri garū'm, Lat. furnus branden
*gʷʰedʰ- to ask Eng. biddian/bid; bed/bead, Gm. pittan/bitten; beta/Gebet, Goth. bidjan; bida, ON biðja, Skr. गध्य (gadhya), Russ. пытать (pytat'), Lat. manifestus bidden
*gʷʰen- to press Skr. हन्ति (hanti), Av. jainti, Lith. ginti, Ltv. dzīt, Old Prussian guntwei, Russ. жать; гнать (žat'; gnat'), Polish gnać, Alb. gjanj, Arm. gan/kan, Ir. gonim/gonadh, ON gunnr, Gk. θείνω (theinō), Hitt. kwen, Pers. ajanam/, Eng. gūþ/—, Gm. gundfano/—, OCS gŭnati
*gʷʰen- to strike, slay, kill Eng. bana/bane, Pers. /zahr, Skr. हन्ति (hanti), Gm. pano/Bahn, ON bani, Goth. banja, Av. jainti, Arm. gan/kan, Gk. θείνω (theinō), Ir. gonim/, Alb. gjah, Lith. ginti, Ltv. dzīt, Russ. гнать (gnat'), Polish gnać, Hitt. kwen, Lyd. qn- ban?
*gʷʰH₂í- bright, shining Lith. giedras, Ltv. dziedrs, Gk. φαιδρός (phaidros)

h₁, e/o[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*h₁ar-mo- arm Osset. arm, Arm. armunk/armung, Lat. armus, OCS ramo, Goth. arms, Eng. earm/arm, Skr. ईर्म (īrma), Old Prussian irmo, Gm. aram/Arm, ON armr, Gk. arthron/ arm
* *h₁dónts tooth Lat. dentis, Gk. odous/donti, Welsh dant, Lith. dantis, Skr. दत् (dat), Marathi /dat, Eng. tōþ/tooth, Gm. zand/Zahn, Goth. tunþus, Russ. десна (desna), Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Pers. /dandān, Kashmiri dãd, Ir. dét/déad, ON tǫnn, Osset. dændag tand
*h₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. есть (jest'), Polish jeść, Skr. अत्स्यति (atsyati), Av. ad, Arm. utel/udel, Hitt. at, Luw. ad-; az-, Palaic ata-, Lat. edō, Oscan edum, Gk. edō, Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. itan, Ir. esse/, Thrac. esko-, Toch. /yesti eten
*h₁edʰ- sharp Russ. ель (jel'), Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Gaul. odocos, Old Prussian addle, Gm. attuh/, Polish jodła ?
*h₁eh₁ter- intestines Gk. ētor/, Ir. inathar/, Lat. uterus, ON ǽðr, Eng. ǣdder/, Gm. ādra/Ader ?
*h₁eh₂-ter- fire Arm. airel, Ir. áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Skr. अथर्वन् (atharvan), Av. ātarš, Pers. Āçiyādiya/ādar, Lat. āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis, Serb. vatra ?
*h₁ei- to go Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. идти (idti), Polish iść, Goth. iddja, Eng. ēode/—, Skr. एति (eti), Av. aēiti, Gk. eimi, Lat. ire, Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers. aitiy/, OCS idǫ, Luw. i- ?
*h₁eibʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/—, Skr. यभति (yabhati), Russ. ебать (jebat'), Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. oiphō/, Polish jebać ?
*h₁el- elbow Gm. elina/elle, Gk. ōlenē, Arm. volok', Lith. uolektis, Ltv. olekts, Russ. локоть (lokot'), Skr. आणिi), Welsh elin, Eng. eln/ell, Ir. uilin/uille, Goth. aleina, ON aln, Alb. llërë/llânë, Av. arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, OCS pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Pers. /āran el, elleboog
*h₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. adēn, Lat. inguen, ON ökkvinn
*h₁epero- boar Lith. Vepriai, Ltv. vepris, Gm. ebur/Eber, Eng. eofor/—, Russ. вепрь (vepr'), Polish wieprz, Skr. वपति (vapati), Lat. aper; vepres, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thrac. ebros, ON jǫfurr ever
*h₁er- goat Arm. oroj/oroč, Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. eriphos, Gm. irah/, OCS jarina ?
*h₁erh₁gʷo- pea Gk. orobos, Ir. orbaind/, Lat. ervum, Gm. arawīz/Erbse, ON ertr erwt
**h₁es- to be OCS jestĭ, Russ. есть (est'), Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. esti, Ir. am/, Skr. अस्ति (asti), Av. asti, Lat. est, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. ē, Polish jest, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. ist, ON es, Hitt. asa, Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic aš-, Toch. e/ei, Pers. astiy/ast is
*h₁eu- to dress Av. aoθra, Russ. обуть (obut'), Polish obuć, Lith. auti, Ltv. aut, Lat. exuo; induo, Arm. aganum/akanum; aganim/akanim, Old Prussian auclo, Umbrian anovihimu, Ir. fuan/, Welsh gŵn, OCS obujǫ ?
*h₁euhdʰ-r̥- udder Lith. ūdruoju, Eng. ūder/udder, Gm. ūtir/Euter, ON jūgr, Gk. outhar/, Skr. ऊधर् (ūdhar), Lat. ūber, Russ. вымя (vimja), Polish wymię uier
*h₁eus- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. heuō/, Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣmerge/ember, ON usli, Skr. ओषति (oati), ?
*h₁ewegʷʰ- to praise Skr. वाघत् (vāghat), Av. raštarəvaġənti, Gk. eukhomai, Arm. gog/kok, Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes ?
*h₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russ. ёж (jož), Lith. ežys, Ltv. ezis, Phryg. eksis, Gk. ekhinos, Gm. igil/Igel, Arm. ozni, Eng. igil/—, ON ígul, Osset. wyzyn, Polish jeż, Phryg. eksis, Alb. esh egel
*h₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. eks, Gaul. ex-, Ir. ass/as, Russ. из (iz), Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iž, Ltv. iz, Old Prussian is, Welsh a ?
*h₁eḱwo- horse Lat. equus, Toch. yuk/yakwe, Gaul. epos, Gk. hippos, Skr. अश्व (aśva), Av. asva-, Lith. ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, Eng. eoh/—, Gm. ehwaz/—, Goth. aiƕtundi, ON iór, Hitt. aśuwas, Arm. ēš, Welsh ebol, Ir. ech/each, Thrac. esvas, Lyc. esbe-, Phryg. es', Pers. aspa/asb, Osset. jæfs/æfsæ, Venetic ekvon ?
**h₁nḗh₃mn̥ name Toch. ñom/ñem, Lat. nōmen, Umbrian nome, Eng. nama/name, Gm. namo/Name, ON nafn, Goth. namo, Skr. नामन् (nāman), Av. nąman, Gk. onoma, OCS Russ. имя (imja), Alb. emër/êmën, Ir. ainm/ainm, Welsh anu, Hitt. lāman, Kamviri nom, Pers. nāma/nām, Arm. anun, Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes naam
[[*h₁oh₁s-}} mouth Skr. आस् (ās); ओष्ठ (oha), Av. aosta, Lat. ōs, Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. уста (usta), Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, Eng. ōr/—, Hitt. aiš, ON oss ?
[[*h₁oh₁ḱ-u- }} quick Gk. ōkupous, Lat. ōcior, Welsh diog, Av. āsu, Skr. आशु (āśu), Russ. ястреб (jastreb), OCS jastrębŭ
*h₁omH₁-so- shoulder Gk. ōmos, Lat. umĕrus, Skr. अंस (asa), Goth. ams, ON ass, Toch. es/āntse, Arm. us ?
*h₁oḱtō(u) eight Arm. ut'/ut'/ut'ĕ, Alb. tëte/tetë, Lith. aštuoni, Ltv. astoņi, Gaul. oxtū, Gm. ahto/acht, Eng. eahta/eight, Gk. oktō, Av. ašta, Ir. ocht/ocht, Kashmiri ā.h, Lyc. aitãta-, Kamviri u, Lat. octō, Oscan uhto, ON átta, Old Prussian astōnjai, Osset. ast/ast, Pers. ašta/hašt, OCS osmĭ, Polish osiem, Russ. восемь (vosem'), Skr. अष्ट (aa), Toch. okät/okt, Goth. ahtau, Welsh wyth acht
*h₁reudʰ-ó- red Lat. ruber, Eng. rēad/red, Lith. raudonas, Ltv. ruds, Skr. रुधिर (rudhira), Russ. рдеть (rdet'), Gk. eruthros, Toch. rtär/ratre, Av. raoðita, Goth. rauþs, ON rjóðr, Gm. rōt/rot, Oscan Rufriis, Umbrian rufru, Ir. ruad/ Welsh rhudd, Gaul. Roudos rood
*h₁reug-] to vomit Russ. рыгать (rygat'), Polish rzygać, Lith. riaugėti, Ltv. raugāties, Gk. ereugomai, Lat. ructāre, Eng. rēocan/reek, Gm. rouhhan/rauchen; itruchen/, ON reykja, Pers. /āroġ, Arm. vorcam/vordzam, rieken, ruiken
*h₁reugʰmen- cream Lith. rūgti, Ltv. raugs, Av. raoġna, Pers. /roġān, ON rjúmi, Eng. rēam/ream, Gm. roum/Rahm room
*h₁reus-men- throat Skr. रोमन्थ (romantha), Lat. rūmen, Welsh rhumen, Lith. raumuo, Ltv. raumins ?
*h₁r̥tḱo- bear Gk. arktos, Lat. ursus, Skr. ऋक्ष (ka), Pers. /xers, Arm. arj/arč, Gaul. Artioni, Alb. ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. ærs, Welsh arth, Av. aršam, Hitt. artagga ?
*h₁égni- fire Skr. अग्नि (agni), Hitt. agniš, Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS ognĭ, Polish ogień, Russ. огонь (ogon'), Alb. enjte ?
*h₁éh₃g-o- berry Toch. oko/oko, Lith. uoga, Ltv. oga, OCS agoda, Russ. ягода (jagoda), Polish jagoda, Goth. akran, ON akarn, Gm. ēker/Ecker, Eng. æcern/acorn, Ir. áirne/, Welsh aeron|bezie, aardbei, bes
*h₁ésh₂r̥- (nom-acc. *h₁ésh₂r̥, gen. *h₁esh₂n-ós) blood Skr. असृज् (asṛj), Old Lat. aser, Ltv. asins, Hitt. ešar, Lyc. esêne-, Luw. ašhar-, Toch. ysār/yasar, Gk. eiar, Arm. ariun ?
*h₁óh₂wyo- (nom-acc. *h₁óh₂wyom, gen. *h₁óh₂wyo-s) egg Lat. ōvum, Gk. Russ. яйцо (jajtso), Gm. ei/Ei, Eng. ǣg/Cockney, Ir. /ubh, Welsh ŵy, Alb. ve; vo, ON egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Arm. dzu/cu, Pers. /xāyah, OCS ajĭse, Kurd. hék ei
*h₁ói-no- one Alb. një/nji, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. oios, Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Kamviri ev, Oscan uinus, ON einn, Old Prussian aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, OCS edinŭ, Polish jeden, Russ. один (odin), Skr. एक (eka), Lat. ūnus, Umbrian uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un een

h₂, a[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*h₂ebl-o- apple Lith. obuolys, Ltv. ābols, Eng. æppel/apple, Russ. яблоко (jabloko), Ir. uball/ubhall, Gm. aphul/Apfel, Polish jabłko, Welsh afal, Old Prussian woble, Skr. अबल (abala), ON eple, Gaul. avallo, OCS jabloko appel
h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Arm. ezn/yez(n)/yez(n), Ir. ag/agh, Welsh ewig, Skr. अही (ahī), Av. azī
*h₂ego- fault, sin Skr. आगस् (āgas), Gk. agos, Eng. acan/ache
* water Lat. aqua, Russ. Ока (Oka), Goth. aha, Gm. aha/Ache, Eng. īg/island, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-, ON á, Goth. aƕa eiland, Aa, IJ
*h₂ep- water Skr. अप् (ap); *h₂p-isk- "fish" Lat. piscis, Ir. íasc/iasc, Goth. fisks, ON fiskr, Eng. fisc/fish, Gm. fisc/Fisch, Russ. пескарь (peskar'), Polish piskorz, Welsh pysgodyn vis
*h₂egʷs-ih₂- axe Lat. ascia, Eng. æx/axe, Gm. ackis/Axt, Gk. aksinē, ON øx, Goth. aqizi
*h₂egʷʰno- lamb OCS jagnę, Russ. ягнёнок (jagnjonok), Gk. amnos, Ir. úan/uan, Eng. ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Lat. agnus, Umbrian habina, Polish jagnię
*h₂eig- sick Lat. aeger, Toch. /aikare, ON eikenn, Lith. ingas, Ltv. angus, OCS jęsa, Russ. яга (jaga), Polish jędza, Eng. inca/, Arm. yekro/yegro
*h₂eim- copy Hitt. imma, Lat. aemulus; imāgō
*h₂eiti- part Av. aēta, Oscan aeteis, Gk. aitios, Ir. áes/aois, Welsh oes
*h₂eiw- vital force Skr. आयु (āyu), Lat. aevum, Av. āyū, Toch. āym/, Eng. æfre/ever, Gm. īo/je; êwig/ewig, Goth. aiws, ON ei, Gk. aiōn, Alb. eshë
*h₂eiǵ- goat Skr. एड (ea), Av. izaēna, Arm. aic/aidz, Gk. aiks
*h₂eiǵ- oak Lith. ąžuolas, Lat. aesculus, Gk. krataigos/, ON eik, Eng. āc/oak, Gm. eihha/Eiche
*h₂eiḱ- spear/pike Gk. aiklos/, Lat. īcō, Old Prussian aysmis, OCS igla, Polish igła, Av. išarə, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, ON eigin, Russ. игла (igla)
*h₂eiḱ- to be master of, to possess Eng. āgan/ought, Goth. aigan, Gm. eigan/eigen, ON eiga, Skr. ईष्टेe), Av. īšti eigen
*h₂ek-mon- stone Gk. ἄκμων (akmōn), Lith. akmuo, Ltv. akmens, Skr. अश्मन् (aśman), Av. asman, Russ. камень (kamen'), Eng. hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, ON hamarr, Hitt. aku, Pers. asman/, Gaul. acaunum, Gm. hamar/Hammer
*h₂el-yó- *h₂el-nó- other Lat. alius, Eng. elles/else; ōþer/other, Skr. अरण (araa), Gk. allos, Oscan allo, Toch. ālak/allek, Arm. ayl, Gaul. alla, Ir. aile/eile, Welsh ail, Goth. alijs; anþar, Gm. elilenti/elend; andar/andere, ON elligar; annarr, Lyd. aλaś, Osset. /ændær
*h₂elbʰ-it- barley Alb. elb, Gk. alphi/
*h₂elbʰó- white Lat. albus, Umbrian alfu, Hitt. alpas, Gm. Alps, Welsh elfydd, Russ. лебедь (lebed'), Eng. ælf/elf, Gk. alphos, Lyc. alb-, ON alfr
*h₂elud- beer Lith. alus, Ltv. alus, Lat. alūmen, Eng. ealu/ale, Gk. aludoimo/, ON ǫl, Old Prussian alu, OCS olŭ
*h₂en- ancestor Gk. annis/anōn, Lat. anus, Illyr. ana, Gm. ano/ahn, Lith. anyta, Hitt. hannas, Arm. han, Russ. внук (vnuk), Old Prussian ane
*h₂en- spirit Skr. अन (ana), Goth. uzanan; andi, Ir. anál/anál, Gk. anemos, Lat. animus, OCS vonja, Russ. вонь (von'), Welsh anysbryd, ON anda; ǫnd, Eng. eðian/—; ōþian/—, Welsh eneid, Av. åntya, Lith. anuoti, Arm. hov, Alb. ajë/âj, Oscan anamum, Toch. āñcäm/āñme
*h₂engwi- eel Lat. Anguilla, Lith. ungurys, Gm. angar/Engerling, Russ. угорь (ugor'), Gk. egkhelus, Old Prussian angurgis
*h₂enh₁-ti- duck Lat. anas, Lith. antis/antinis, Skr. आति (āti), Russ. утка (utka), Gm. anut/Ente, Eng. ened/—, ON ǫnd, Old Prussian antis, Gk. nēssa/
*h₂enk- angle Gm. ango/, Osset. ængur, Skr. अङ्क (aka), Lat. ancus, Lith. anka, Ltv. āķis, Gk. agkōn, Russ. угол (ugol), ON angi, Av. akupəsəmna, Welsh anghad, Ir. ēcath/, Hitt. hink
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow Gk. ankhō/, Skr. अंहु (ahu), Av. ązahē, Russ. узкий (uzkij), Goth. aggwus, ON aungr, Arm. anjuk/ančug, Gm. engi/eng, Hitt. hamenk, OCS ǫzŭkŭ, Polish wąski, Lith. ankšta, Toch. ets/entse, Eng. enge/, Welsh ehang, Ir. /cumung
*h₂ep- river, lake Hitt. ap(a), Palaic apnas, Luw. apinni, Ltv. upe, Lith. upė, Old Prussian ape, Eng. ōfer/, Gm. /Ufer, Skr. आप् (āp), Av. afš, Lat. amnis, Toch. āp/āp oever
*h₂ep- to reach Av. apayeiti, Lat. apex, Skr. आप्त (āpta), Gk. apto, Arm. unim, Hitt. apanzi, Toch. oppäśśi/, Polish opaść
*h₂eps-eh₂- aspen Eng. æspe/aspen, Gm. aspa/Espe, ON ǫsp, Lith. epušė, Ltv. apse, Old Prussian abse, Gk. aspris/
*h₂er- nut Russ. орех (orex), Alb. arrë, Gk. arna, Polish orzech
*h₂erg- to lock Gk. arkeō, Lat. arcēre, Arm. argel/arkel, Goth. arka, Old Prussian arkan, Polish arkan, Hitt. ark-, Toch. —/ārk, Oscan trííbarakavúm, Lith. raktas; užrakinti
*h₂erH₁- to plow Toch. āre/āre, Lat. arō, Gk. arotēr, Lith. arti, Ltv. art, OCS orati, Russ. орать (orat'), Arm. araur, Ir. airim/, Polish orać, Goth. arjan, Eng. erian/—, ON arðr, Welsh arddu, Old Prussian artoys, Gm. erien/
*h₂erǵó-, *h₂erǵí- white, shining Gk. arguros, Lat. arguō, Hitt. arkiš, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Eng. eorcnanstān/—, Gk. erchan/—, Skr. अर्जुन (arjuna), Ir. argat/airgead, Av. arəzah, Welsh ariant, Oscan aragetud, Arm. arcat'/ardzat', Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Gaul. Argentoratum, Goth. unairkns
*h₂eu- to help Skr. अवति (avati), Lat. aveō, Av. avaiti, Arm. aviun, Gaul. Avicantus, Goth. ewyll, Gk. -aones, Lith. aušti, Ltv. aust, Ir. con ói/, Toch. olar/aulāre, ON auð, Eng. īþe/, Gm. ōdmuoti/
*h₂eug- to glance Gk. augē, Alb. agon, Russ. юг (jug), OCS jugŭ
*h₂eug- to increase Lith. augti, Ltv. augt, Lat. auctis, Gk. auksōn, Skr. उग्र (ugra), Toch. ok/auk, Eng. eacan/eke; weaxan/wax, Gm. ouh/auch; wahsan/wachsen, ON auka; vaxa, Goth. aukan; wahsjan, Old Prussian auginnons, Umbrian uhtur
*h₂euH₂o- *h₂éuh₂-yo- paternal grandfather, maternal uncle Lat. avus; avunculus, Gaul. avontīr, Gk. aia, Lith. avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Arm. hav, Eng. ēam/—, Ir. aue/ó, Goth. awó, Gm. ōheim/Oheim, OCS uy, Russ. уй (uj), Polish wuj, Hitt. huhhas
*h₂eus- dawn Lat. aurōra, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Gm. ōstra/Osten, Skr. उषस् (uas), Russ. утро (utro), Eng. ēast/east, Gk. hēos, ON austr, Av. ušastara, Ir. fáir/, Welsh gwawr oost, oosten
*h₂ewi- (nom. *h₂ewi-s, gen. *h₂wei-s) bird Lat. avis, Av. vīš, Skr. वि (vi), Arm. hav, Welsh hwyad, Gk. aetos, Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Umbrian avif, Ir. /aoi
*h₂eǵ- goat Skr. अज (aja), Pers. /azg, Lith. ožys, Ltv. āzis, Ir. ag/agh, OCS jazno, Russ. язь (jaz'), Old Prussian wosux, Alb. dhi
*h₂eǵʰero- lake Lith. ežeras, Ltv. ezers, Russ. озеро (ozero), Illyr. oseriates, Gk. Akherōn, OCS jezero, Polish jezioro, Old Prussian assaran
*h₂eḱ- sharp Gk. akros, Lat. ācer, Skr. अश्रि (aśri), OCS ostrŭ, Russ. ость; острый (ost'; ostryj), Ir. aicher/, Lith. aštrus, Ltv. asmens, Goth. ahs, Pers. /ās, Gaul. Akrotalus, Welsh eithiw, Oscan akrid, Umbrian peracri, Arm. asełn/aseġ/aseġ, Alb. athët, Toch. āk/āke, Eng. ecg/edge, ON egg, Gm. egga/Ecke, Polish ostry, XMK akrounoi
*h₂ner- power Lat. neriōsus, Welsh nerth, Alb. njer, Skr. नर् (nar), Luw. anarummi, Lyd. nãrś, Lith. noras, Russ. нрав (nrav), Gaul. Nertobriga, Arm. air, Gk. anēr, Oscan ner, Umbrian nerf, Ir. nert/, Phryg. anar
*h₂nos- nose Lat. nasus, Skr. नस (nasa), OCS nasu, Russ. нос (nos), Lith. nosis, Ltv. nāss, Eng. nosu/nose, Av. nah, Gm. nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsu, Old Prussian nazy, Pers. nāham/, ON nös
*h₂ous- ear Lat. auris, Gk. ous, Skr. उसि (usi), OCS ucho, Russ. уши (uši), Goth. auso, Lith. ausis, Ltv. auss, Gaul. ausia-, Alb. vesh, Gm. ōra/Ohr, Ir. au/, Av. usi, Pers. gaušā/guš, Eng. éare/ear, ON eyra, Arm. unkn/akanj/aganč, Old Prussian āusins. See also Hausos. oor
* star Lat. stella, Gk. astēr, Gm. sterro/Stern, Eng. steorra/star, ON stjarna, Goth. stairno, Arm. astł/astġ/asdġ, Skr. तारस् (tāras); स्तृ (st), Welsh seren, Toch. śre/śćirye, Kamviri âšto, Pers. /setāre, Osset. sthaly/, Hitt. šittar, Kurd. stérk/estére ster
*h₂u-per over Lat. super, Gk. huper, Skr. उपरि (upari), Av. upairi, Eng. ofer/over, Gm. ubar/über, Goth. ufarō, ON yfir, Gaul. Uertragus, Ir. for/for, Pers. upariy/bar, Welsh gwarthaf, Oscan supruis, Umbrian super, Arm. ver, Av. upairi over
*h₂wap- bad, evil Hitt. uwapp, Eng. yfel/evil, Gm. ubil/Übel, Goth. ubils euvel
*h₂yuh₁ení- young OCS junu, Russ. юный (junyj), Skr. युवन् (yuvan), Gaul. Jovincillus, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Eng. geong/young, Av. yavan, Lat. juvĕnis, Umbrian iuengar , Gm. jung/jung, Welsh ieuanc, ON ungr, Goth. juggs, Welsh ieuanc, Ir. óc/óg, Pers. /javān jong
*h₂éd-es- cereal Hitt. hattar, Lat. ador, Gm. azzic/, Goth. atisk, Toch. āti/atiyo, Av. āðūfrāðana, Arm. hat/had
* field Skr. अज्र (ajra), Gk. agros, Lat. ager, Umbrian ager, Goth. akrs, Eng. æcer/acre, Arm. art/ard, Gm. achar/Acker, ON akr
*h₂ént-i front Hitt. anta, Luw. hantili, Lyc. xñtawata, Lith. ant, Eng. ende/end, Gm. endi/Ende, Goth. and, ON endr, Gk. anti, Ir. étan/, Lat. antiae, Oscan ant, Toch. ānt/ānte
*h₂érkʷo- bow Lat. arcus, Goth. arƕazna, Eng. arwe/arrow, Gk. arkeuthos, Russ. ракита (rakita), Polish rakieta, Ltv. ērkšķis, ON ǫrvar, Umbrian arçlataf
*h₂éwiǵ- oats Lat. avēna, Lith. aviža, Ltv. auza, Russ. овёс (ovjos), Polish owies, Gk. aigilōps/, Old Prussian wyse, OCS ovĭsŭ
*h₂éy-es- (nom. h₂eyos, gen. h₂eyesos) metal Skr. अयस् (ayas), Lat. aes, Umbrian ahesnes, Gm. ēr/Erz, Eng. ār/ore, Av. ayah, Goth. aiz, ON eir, Gaul. Isarnodori, Ir. iarn/iarann, Welsh haearn, Pers. /āhan erts
*h₂éǵʰ-r/n̥- day Skr. अहर् (ahar), Av. azan
*h₂ó-sd-o- branch Arm. ost/vost/vosd, Gk. ozos, Eng. ōst/, Gm. ast/Ast, Goth. asts, Hitt. ašda- as

h₃, o[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*H₃el-no- alder Lat. alnus, Lith. alksnis, Ltv. elksnis, Russ. ольха (ol'xa), XMK aliza, ON alr, Gm. elira/Erle, Eng. alor/alder, Old Prussian aliskande, Gaul. alisa, Hitt. alanzan, Polish olcha
*H₃em- bitter Gk. ōmos, Lat. amārus, Arm. hum, Skr. अम्ल (amla), Eng. ampre/, ON apr, Ltv. amols, Alb. ëmblë, XMK abro-
*H₃engʷ- to anoint Skr. अनक्ति (anakti), Arm. aucanem/audzanem, Ir. /imb, Lat. unguō, Umbrian umtu, Old Prussian anctan, Gm. ancho/, Welsh ymenyn
*H₃erbʰo- work Lat. orbus, Arm. orb/orp, Ir. orbe/, Skr. अर्भ (arbha), Hitt. arpa, Gk. orphanos, Gm. arbeit/Arbeit, Eng. earfoð/—, OCS rabŭ, Polish robota, Russ. работа (rabota), Gaul. Orbius, Goth. arbi, ON arfr, Lith. irbu
*H₃ers- to protrude Gk. oura, Arm. or, Hitt. arras, Eng. ears/arse, Ir. err/earr, Gm. ars/Arsch, ON ars
*H₃erǵʰi- testicle Gk. orkhēs, Arm. ordzik'/orcik', Ir. uirge/, Lith. aržilas, Ltv. ērzelis, Av. ərəzi, Alb. herdhe
*H₃eyó- multicolored, reddish Lith. ieva, Ltv. ieva, Eng. īw/yew, Gm. īwa/Eibe, ON ýr, Gk. oiē, Gaul. ivo, Ir. éo/eó, Welsh iwen, Russ. ива (iva)
*H₃nobʰ- navel Lat. umbilīcus, Skr. नभ्य (nabhya), Av. nāba, Ltv. naba, Gm. nabalo/Nabel, Eng. nafela/navel, ON nafli, Gk. omphalos, Ir. imbliu/imleacán, Kashmiri naf, Old Prussian nabis, Pers. /nāf
*H₃nógʰ-o- / *H₃nógʰ-ro- / *H₃nógʰ-i- nail Gk. onukhos, Lat. unguis, Skr. अङ्घ्रि (aghri), Gm. nagel/Nagel, OCS noguti, Russ. ноготь (nogot'), Lith. nagas, Ltv. nags, Av. nakhara, Arm. ełgungn/yeġung/yeġunk, Welsh ewin, Eng. nægl/nail, Pers. /nāxun, Ir. inga/ionga
*H₃okʷ- eye Lat. oculus, OCS oko, Russ. око (oko), Toch. ak/ek, Arm. akn/ač'k'/ač'k', Skr. अक्षि (akṣi), Gk. ophthalmos, Eng. ēge/eye, Gm. ouga/Auge, Goth. augo, Alb. sy, Lith. akis, Ltv. acs, Kamviri âč, Ir. enech/oineach, Welsh enep, ON auga, Polish oko, Old Prussian ackis
*H₃or-no- eagle Gm. arn/Aar, Arm. arciv/ardziv, Eng. earn/erne, Gk. orneon, Russ. орёл (orjol), Lith. erelis, Ltv. ērglis, Hitt. aran, Polish orzeł, Welsh eryr, ON ari, Goth. ara, Alb. orë, Old Prussian arelis, Ir. irar/
*H₃ost- / kost- bone Lat. os; costa, Alb. asht, Gk. ostoun, Russ. кость; остов (kost'; ostov), Skr. अस्थि (asthi), Av. asti, Hitt. astāi, Welsh asgwrn, Kamviri âi, Pers. /ostexān, Polish kość, Toch. /ásta, Arm. oskr/voskr/vosgr, Luw. āš
*H₃owi- (nom. H₃owi-s, gen. H₃ewy-ós) sheep Russ. овца (ovtsa), Lith. avis, Ltv. avs, Skr. अविक (avika), Eng. ēowu/ewe, Gm. ouwi/Aue, Goth. awēþi, ON ǽr, Gk. ois, Ir. ói/, Hitt. awi, Luw. āwi-, Welsh ewig, Toch. —/āuw, Arm. hoviv, Polish owca, Lat. ovis, Umbrian uvem, Old Prussian awins, Lyc. xabwa
*H₃reǵ- to straighten Lat. regere, Gk. oregein, Eng. riht/right, Gm. reht/recht, ON réttr, Goth. raihts, Thrac. rhesus, Toch. räk/räk, Arm. arcvi/ardzvi;
*H₃rēǵ-(H₃ón-) / "ruler, king": Skr. राजन् (rājan), Oscan regaturei, Lat. rēx, Gaul. rīx, Ir. ríg/rígh, Welsh rhi, Av. raz, Pers. /rahst, Alb. e drejtë; radhë
*H₃és-H₃en- (nom. *H₃esH₃ōn, gen. *H₃esH₃n-ós) harvest Russ. осень (osen'), Old Prussian assanis, Eng. earnian/earn, Goth. asans, Gm. aran/Ernte, ON ǫnn, Gk. opōra, Polish jesień, Lat. annōna, Arm. ashun
*H₃és-no- H₃és-i- ash Lat. ornus, Lith. uosis, Ltv. osis, Russ. осина (osina), Gm. asc/Esche, Eng. æsc/ash, Old Prussian woasis, ON askr, Welsh onnen, Alb. ah, Arm. hac'i, Gk. akherōis/

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Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*ḱak- branch Arm. čyuġ/jyuġ, Lith. šaka, Ltv. saka, Skr. शाखा (śākhā), Russ. соха (soxa), Alb. thekë, Goth. hōha, Kamviri coa, Old Prussian sagnis, Ir. gēc/gēag, Gm. huohili/ , Pers. /šāxe(h)
*ḱalh₂mo- reed Gk. kalamos, Lat. culmus, Toch. kulmãts/, Eng. healm/haulm, Ltv. salms, Old Prussian salme, Russ. солома (soloma), ON halmr, Gm. halm/Halm, Ir. /giolcach (-cach being diminutive suffix)
*ḱas- gray Lat. cānus, Skr. षष (śaśa), Gm. hasu/; haso/Hase, Old Prussian sasins, Eng. hasu/; hara/hare, ON hǫss; heri, Welsh ceinach, Pashto soe
*ḱat- battle OCS kotora, Gaul. catu, Eng. heaþu, Gm. hathu/, Skr. शातयति (śātayati), ON hoð, Ir. cath/cath, Welsh cad, Toch. /keta
*ḱeh₂d- hate Eng. hete/hate, Gm. haz/haß, Goth. hatis, ON hatr, Skr. रिशादस् (riśādas), Av. sādra/, Gk. kēdos, Oscan cadeis amnud, Ir. caiss/cais, Welsh câs
*ḱel- warm, cold Ltv. silt, Lith. šilti, Ir. clithe/, Welsh clyd, ON hlǽr, Eng. hlēow/lukewarm, Gm. lāo/lau, Skr. शिशिर (śiśira), Av. sarəta, Osset. sald, Pers. /sard, Lat. calēre, Kurd. sarr
*ḱer- horn Lat. cerĕbrum; cervus; cornūs, Russ. корова (korova); серна (serna) (korova); череп (čerep), Old Prussian kerpetis; sirwis, Gk. keras; kare Av. srū; srvā; sarah, Skr. शिरस् (śiras), Arm. sar, Bret. kern, Gm. hirni/Hirn; horn/Horn, ON hjarni;horn Pers. /sar; /šāx, Toch. /krāñi, Osset. sær; sykha, Alb. krye; sorkadh; ka, Eng. horn/horn, Welsh corn, Kamviri i, Goth. haurn, Hitt. karawar, Lith. širšė, Ltv. sirsis, Gaul. karnuks, Ir. corn/corn, Polish krowa, Kurd. ser
*ḱerberó- piebald Gk. kerberos, Skr. शर्वर (śarvara), Russ. соболь (sobol'), Ir. corbaim/, Lith. kirba
* heart Lat. cor, Skr. हृदय (hdaya), Av. zərədā, Hitt. karts, Lyc. kride, Palaic kart-, Gk. kardia, Eng. heorte/heart, OCS srĭdĭce, Russ. сердце (serdtse), Lith. širdis, Ltv. sirds, Old Prussian seyr, Arm. sird/sirt, Welsh craidd, Kamviri zâra, Ir. cride/croidhe, Polish serce, Gm. herza/Herz, Goth. hairto, ON hjarta, Osset. zærdæ
*ḱerh₂- to mix Eng. hrēr/rare, Gm. hruoren/rühren, ON hrǿra, Skr. श्रायति (śrāyati), Av. sar, Gk. kratēr
*ḱermus- cherry Gk. kerasos/keradion, Lith. šermukšlė, Ltv. cērmaukša, Russ. черёмуха (čerjomuxa)
*ḱers- to run Lat. currō, Gaul. carros, Gk. epikouros, Welsh carrog, Ir. carr/, Toch. kursär/kwasär, Gm. horsk/, ON horskr, Eng. horsc/
*ḱewh₁ro- northwind Russ. север (sever), Lith. šiaurys, Arm. c'urt/c'urd, Eng. scūr/shower, Gm. scūr/Schauer, Goth. skura, ON skúr, OCS severu
*ḱiker- pea Lat. cicer, Arm. sisen, Gk. krios, Lith. kekė
*ḱlei- to lean Lat. clīnō, Ir. clóin/, Gk. klinē, Eng. hleonian/lean, Arm. le, Lith. šlieti, Ltv. sliet, Russ. слой (sloj), Skr. श्रायति (śrayati), Av. srinu, Gm. hlīnen/lehnen, Welsh clwyd, Old Prussian slayan, Toch. kälyme/kälymiye, Goth. hlain, ON hlein
*ḱlep- to steal Lat. clepō, Gk. kleptō, Arm. goġnal/koġnal, Goth. hlifan, Ir. cluain/, Old Prussian auklipts, Lith. slėpti, Ltv. slēpt
*ḱleu- clean Lat. cloāca, Gk. kludōn, Gaul. Cluad, Eng. hlūttor/, Lith. šluoti, Ltv. slaumi, Russ. слеза (sleza), Welsh clir, Gm. hlūttar/lauter, Goth. hlūtrs, ON hlér, OCS slĭza
*ḱleu- to hear Lat. cluēre, Gaul. clu, Gk. kleos, Illyr. cleves, Lith. klausyti; šlovė, Ltv. klausīt, OCS slovo, Russ. слово (slovo), Skr. श्रु (śru), Av. surunaoiti, Gm. hlut/laut, Eng. hlud/loud, Toch. klyos, ON hljóðr, Goth. hliuþ, Toch. klāw/klāw, Arm. lu, Alb. quhem, Polish słowo
*ḱlouni- buttock Lat. clūnis, ON hlaun, Kamviri slaunis, Skr. श्रोणि (śroi), Av. sraoni, Welsh clun, Lith. šlaunis
* hundred Lat. centum, Lith. šimtas, Ltv. simts, Gm. hunt/hundert, Eng. hundred/hundred, Goth. hund, ON hundrað, Gk. hekaton, Av. sata, Gaul. cantam, Ir. cét/cead, Kashmiri śath, Osset. sædæ, Pers. /sad, OCS sŭto, Polish sto, Russ. сто (sto), Skr. शत (śata), Av. satem, Toch. känt/kante, Welsh cant
*ḱon- shell Lat. conguius, Gk. kogkhos, Skr. शङ्ख (śakha)
*ḱubʰ- shoulder Lat. cubitus, Alb. sup, Gm. huf/Hüfte, Eng. hype/hip, Gk. kubos, Av. supti, Skr. शुप्ति (śupti), Goth. hups, Welsh gogof, Pers. /šāne
*ḱwen- holy Lith. šventas, Ltv. svinēt, Russ. святой (svjatoj), Av. spanyah, Goth. hunsl, Polish święty, Old Prussian swints, ON hunsl, Eng. hūsel/housel, OCS svętŭ
**ḱwṓ dog Lat. canis, Gk. kuōn/, Arm. šun, Phryg. kunes, Toch. ku/ku, Gaul. cuna, Eng. hund/hound, Skr. श्वन् (śvan), Av. spā, Russ. сука suka, Polish suka; kundel(?), Gm. hunt/Hund, Kashmiri hūn, Lith. šuo, Ltv. suns, Old Prussian sunis, Thrac. dinu-, Goth. huns, ON hundr, Welsh ci, Ir. cū/cú, Hitt. śuwanis, Lyd. kan-, Dacian kinu-, Alb. samë, Pers. /sag hond
*ḱóino- grass Gk. koina, Arm. xot/xod, Lith. šienas, Ltv. siens, Russ. сено (seno), Polish siano
*ḱórw-eh₂- crow Alb. sorrë, Lith. šarka, Gk. koraks, Russ. сорока (soroka), Skr. शारि (śāri), Lat. cornīx, Umbrian curnāco, Polish sroka

k[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*kaiko- one-eyed Lat. caecus, Skr. केकर (kekara), Lith. keikti Gk. kaikias, Ir. caech/, Welsh coeg, Goth. haihs, Polish Kajko
*kailo- whole Welsh coel, Gm. heil/heil, Eng. hālig/holy, ON heilagr, Goth. hailags, OCS cĕlŭ, Russ. целый (tselyj), Old Prussian kailūstiskan, Polish cały
*kakka excrement Lat. cacāre, Russ. какать (kakat'), Gk. kakkaō, Arm. k'akor/k'agor, Ir. cacc/cac, Gm. /Kacke, Welsh cach, Lith. kaka, Pers. /keke(h)
*kal- handsome Skr. कल्य (kalya), Gk. kallos
*kan- to sing Gk. kanakheō/, Ir. canim/, Russ. канюк (kanjuk), Goth. hana, Eng. hen/hen, Gm. hano/Hahn, ON hani; hœna, Welsh canu, Pers. /āvāz xāndan, Lat. canō, Umbrian kanetu, Kurd. xwéndin
*kant- corner Gk. kanthos, Lat. cantus, Gaul. kantem, Goth. cant, Russ. кут (kut), Polish kant; kąt, Lith. kampas
*kapro- goat Skr. कपृथ (kaptha), Gk. kapros, Lat. caper, Umbrian kabru, Gaul. cabros, Ir. gabor/, Welsh gafr, ON hafr, Eng. hæfer/, Gm. habaro/Haber
*kaput- head Skr. कपुच्छल (kapucchala), Lat. caput, Eng. heafod/head, Gm. houbit/Haupt, ON haufuð, Goth. haubiþ
*kat- cub Lat. catulus, Umbrian katel, Russ. котиться (kotit'sja), ON haðna, Ir. cadla/
*ke(n)g- hook Lith. kengė Pers. /čang, Ir. ailcheng/, Russ. коготь (kogot'), Eng. hoc/hook, ON haki; hǫnk, Gm. hâco/Haken
*ked- to fume Gk. kedros, Skr. कद्रु (kadru), Lith. kadagys, Ltv. kadags, OCS kadilo, Russ. чад (čad), Old Prussian kadegis
*keH₂ro- wax Gk. kēros, Lith. korys, Ltv. kāre, Ir. /céir, Lat. cēra
*kel- glue Gk. kolla, Lith. klijai, Russ. клей (klej), Polish klej
*kenk- kneecap Skr. कङ्काल (kañkāla), Lith. kenkle, Ltv. cinksla, Eng. hēla/heel, ON hǽll
*kerp- to pluck Gk. karpos, Lat. carpere, Eng. hærfest/harvest, Ir. corrán/corrán, Welsh par, Goth. ƕaírban, ON hverfa, Toch. kārp/kärp, Gm. hwerban/werben, Lith. kirpti
*klen- maple Russ. клён (kljon), Polish klon, ON hlynr, Lith. klevas, Ltv. kļava, XMK klinotrokhon, Eng. hlin/linn, Welsh celyn
*knid- louse Russ. гнида (gnida), Polish gnida, Ltv. gnīda, Welsh nedd, Gm. hniz/Nisse, Gk. konis, Alb. thërijë/thëni, Arm. anic/anidz, Ir. /sned, Eng. hnitu/nit
*kob- to succeed Gaul. Vercobius, Ir. cob/, Eng. gehæp/, ON happ, OCS kobĭ, Russ. кобь (kob'), Toch. akappi/
*koiló- naked Ir. cóil/, Welsh cul, Ltv. kails
*kom with Lat. cum, Ir. com-/, Eng. ge-/—, gemōt/gemot, Gm. ga-/ge-, Goth. ga-, ON g-, Gk. koinos, Russ. к (k), Polish k, OCS
*krem- onion Gk. kremuon, Ir. crem/creamh, Eng. hramsan/ramson, Lith. kermušė, Ltv. cermaukša; cērmūkslis, Russ. черемша (čeremša), Welsh craf
*kreuH₂- blood Skr. क्रविस् (kravis), Lat. cruor, Lith. kraujas, Ltv. krevele, OCS kruvi, Russ. кровь (krov'), Ir. cró/creo, Gk. kreas, ON hrár, Av. xrūva, Welsh crau, Polish krew, Gm. hrāo/roh, Old Prussian crauyo, Eng. hrēaw/raw
*kroksko- leg Alb. krah, Lith. kirkaliai, OCS kraka, Russ. окорок (okorok), Skr. किष्कु (kiku)
*ksweid- milk Lith. sviestas, Ltv. sviests, Skr. क्ष्विद्यति (kvidyati), Av. xšvīd
*kuep- to boil Skr. कुप्यति (kupyati), Lat. cupere, Lith. kvepėti, Ltv. kvēpēt, Russ. кипеть (kipet'), Alb. kapit, Gk. kapnos, ON hvap, Toch. kāp/kāp, Old Prussian kupsins, OCS kypĕti, Goth. afƕapjan, Hitt. kup
*kwas- to cough Skr. कसाते (kasāte), Ir. /casachdach, Russ. кашлять (kašljat'), Lith. kosėti, Ltv. kāsēt, Gm. huosto/Husten, ON hósta, Kamviri kâsa, Polish kaszleć, Alb. kollje, Welsh pas, Toch. /kosi, Eng. hwōsta/
*kwat- sour Skr. क्वथ (kvatha), Lat. cāseus, OCS kvasŭ, Russ. квас (kvas), Ltv. kūsāt, Alb. cos, Polish kwas, Goth. ƕaþō, Eng. hwaþerian/
*kóro- war Lith. karas, Ltv. kaŗš, Gk. koiranos, Ir. cuire/, Gm. heri/Heer, Eng. herebeorg/harbour, Russ. кара (kara), Polish kara, ON herr, Goth. harjis, Gaul. Tricorii, Pers. kāra/kārzār, Old Prussian kargis, Kurd. šer
*kóslo- hazel Lat. corulus, Lith. kasulas, Eng. hæsel/hazel, ON hasl, Gm. hasal/Hasel, Ir. coll/coll, Welsh collen

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Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*kʷe Enclitic "and" Lat. -que, Goth. -u(h), Gk. -τέ (-te), Skr. (ca), Lyc. -ke, Luw. -ku
*kʷeiH- quiet Lat. quiēs, ON hvīla, Eng. hwil/while, Gm. hwila/Weile, Goth. ƕeila, OCS počiti, Russ. почить (počit'), Skr. चिरम् (ciram), Av. šāitiš, Pers. šiyātiš/šāh, Lyc. tezi, Toch. /śāte, Polish odpoczywać, Arm. hangč'im/hankč'im, Lith. tylus
* four Lat. quattuor, Arm. č'ork'/č'ors/č'ors, Alb. katër/katër, Lith. keturi, Ltv. četri, Gaul. petor, Gm. feor/vier, Eng. fēower/four, Gk. τέσσαρες (tessares), Av. čaθwar, Ir. cethir/ceahair, Kashmiri tsor, Kamviri što, Oscan petora, ON fjórir, Old Prussian keturjāi, Osset. cyppar/cuppar, Pers. /čahār, OCS četĭire, Polish cztery, Russ. четыре (četyre), Skr. चतुर् (catur), Toch. śtwar/śtwer, Thrac. ketri-, Umbrian petor, Goth. fidwor, Welsh pedwar, Bret. pevar, Lyc. teteri, Kurd. čwar
*kʷrei- to buy Skr. क्रीणाति (krīāti), Lith. kraitis, Ltv. kriens, Ir. crenaim/, Russ. кренуть (krenut'), Toch. kuryar/käry, Gk. πρίαμαι (priamai), Arm. gnel/knel, Welsh prynu
*kʷrép-o- / *kʷr̥p-eH₂- body Lat. corpus, Skr. कृपा (kpā), Av. kərəfš, Alb. shkrep, Gm. href/, Eng. hrif/midriff, Gk. πραπίς (prapis), Ir. crí/ , Russ. круп (krup)
*kʷr̥-mi- grub Skr. कृमि (kmi), Lith. kirmis, Ltv. cērme, Alb. krimb/krymb, Ir. cruim/, OCS čermnyi, Russ. червь (červ'), Welsh pryf, Osset. kalm, Pers. /kirm, Old Prussian girmis
*kʷékʷlo- / *kʷol-o- wheel Gk. κύκλος (kuklos), Lat. colus, Toch. kukäl/kokale, Skr. चक्र (cakra), Russ. колесо (koleso), Eng. hwēol/wheel, Pers. čarka/čarx, Ir. cul/—, Old Prussian kelan, Osset. calx/, Polish koło, Av. čaxra, Alb. sjell, ON hjōl; hvel, Lith. kelias, Luw. kaluti-

l[bewerken]

Root Betekenis Afgeleide woorden In Nederlands
*laiwó- left (direction) Lat. laevus, Gk. laios, Russ. левый (levyj), Illyr. Levo, Eng. lǣw/, Lith. išlaivoti, Polish lewy, ON lǽn, Gm. lēwes/, OCS lĕvŭ
*laks- salmon Toch. laks/läks, ON lax, Lith. lašiša, Ltv. lasis, Russ. лосось (losos'), Polish łosoś, Gm. lahs/Lachs, Eng. leax/—, Old Prussian lalasso
*laku- pond Gk. lakkos, Lat. lacus, Gm. lagu/, Ir. loch/loch, Arm. lič/lij , Eng. lagu/—, Lith. lekmenė, ON lǫgr, Serb. lokva
*las- eager Skr. लषति (laati), Lat. lascīvus, Russ. ласка (laska), Lith. lokšnus, Eng. lust/lust, Gm. lust/Lust, Goth. lustus, ON lyst, Gk. lilaiomai, Ir. lainn/
*lat- swamp Gk. lataks, Lith. Latupė, Ltv. Late, Gaul. Arelate, Ir. lathach/lathach, Gm. letto/letten, Welsh llaid
*lebʰ- lip Lat. labĭum, Gm. /Lippe; lefs/Lefze Eng. lippa/lip, Welsh llefaru, Russ. лобзать (lobzat'), Pers. /lab, Lith. lūpa, Kurd. léw
*legʰ- to lie down Lat. lectus, OCS ležati, Russ. лежать (ležat'), Gk. lekhethai/, Gm. liggan/liegen, Ir. lige/luighe, Welsh gwely, Eng. lecgen/lie, Polish leżeć, Gaul. legasit, ON liggja, Goth. ligan, Toch. lake/leke, Lith. lagaminas, Ltv. lagača
*leH₂w- to pour, wash Gk. lousis, Lat. lavare, Gaul. lautro, Arm. loganam/lokanam, Hitt. lahhu- 'to pour', Gm. louga/Lauge, Eng. lēðran/lather, ON laug, Ir. lóathar/, Welsh luddw
*leH₃p- cow Alb. lopë, Ir. lāeg, Welsh llo
*lei- to pour Gk. leibó, Skr. रियति (riyati), Hitt. lilái-, Goth. leithu, Lith. lieti, Old Prussian isliuns, OCS liti, Russ. лить (lit'), Polish lac', Ir. lie/, Welsh lliant, Kurd. rijyan
*leig- to jump Gk. elelizdō/, Lith. laigyti; liuoksėti, Goth. laiks, Gm. leih/Leich, Skr. रेजति (rejati), Pers. /ālēxtan, Eng. lāc/—, ON leikr
*leikʷ- to leave Lat. linquō, Lith. likti, Ltv. likt, Ir. léicid/, Gm. līhan/leihen, Arm. lk'anem, Gk. leipō, Skr. रिणक्ति (riakti), Av. raexnah, Pers. /rēxtan, Old Prussian polijcki, Russ. олек (olek), Eng. lǣnan/lend, ON ljá, Goth. leiƕan
*leiǵʰ- to lick Lat. lingere, Skr. लेढि (lehi), Ir. ligim/, Gk. leikhein, Arm. luzel, Russ. лизать (lizat'), Gm. leckôn/lecken, Eng. liccian/lick, Kamviri liza, Polish lizać, Alb. lëpij, ON sleikja, Pers. /lēsēdan, Av. raēzate, Lith. laižyti, Ltv. laizīt, Welsh llywu, Goth. bilaigon, Kurd. lésínewe
*lendʰ- loin, kidney Gm. lenti/Lende, Eng. lenden/—, ON lend, Russ. лядвие (ljadvie), Lat. lumbus
*lendʰo- steppe Old Prussian lindan, Eng. land/land, ON land, Ir. land/lann, Welsh llan, OCS ledina, Russ. ляда (ljada), Polish ląd, Gm. /Land, Gaul. landa
*lengʷʰ- lightweight Lat. levis, Alb. lehtë, Gk. elakhistos, Skr. लघु (laghu), Av. ragu, Lith. lengva, Ltv. liegs, Old Prussian lāngiseilingins, Goth. līhts, Eng. lēoht/light, Gm. līht/leicht, ON lēttr, Toch. /lankŭtse, Ir. lugu/lugha, Welsh llai, OCS lĭgŭkŭ, Polish lekki, Russ. лёгкий (lëgkij), Welsh lai, Kashmiri lo.t
*leubʰ- to love Russ. любить (ljubit'), Skr. लुभ्यति (lubhyati), Eng. lufu/love, Lith. liaupsė, Alb. lum, Gm. liob/Liebe, Polish lubić, ON ljúfr, Goth. liufs, Lat. libido, Oscan loufit, OCS ljubŭ
*leudʰ-o- people Lat. līber, Lith. liaudis, Ltv. ļaudis, OCS ljudĭje, Russ. люди (ljudi), Gk. eleutheros, Ir. luss/, Skr. रोधति (rodhati), Av. raoða, Gm. liut/Leute, Polish lud, ON ljóðr, Alb. lind, Oscan Lúvfreís, Welsh llysiau, Goth. liudan, Eng. lēod/, Old Prussian ludis
*leugʰ- to tell a lie Eng. lyge/lie, Gm. liogan/lügen, ON ljúga, Goth. liugan, Lith. lugoti, OCS lŭgati, Russ. лгать (lgat'), Welsh llu, Ir. luige/, Polish łgać
*leuk-; *lóuk-o- bright; light OCS luci, Russ. луг (lug), Skr. रोचते (rocate), Gk. leukos, Eng. lēoht/light, Gm. lioht/licht, Kamviri luka, Goth. liuhaþ, ON leygr, Toch. luk, Oscan Lúvkis, Umbrian Vuvçis, Welsh llug, Ir. loscaim/loiscim, Lat. lux, Lith. lauka, Ltv. lauks, Hitt. lalukkes, Lyc. luga, Luw. luha-, Arm. loys, Kamviri uč, Gaul. leux, Av. raočant
*leuk-s lynx Gk. lugks, Lith. lūšis, Ltv. lūsis, Old Prussian luysis, Gm. luhs/Luchs, Eng. lox/—, Russ. рысь (rys'), Polish ryś, Arm. lusanun, Ir. lug/
*leuǵ- to break Gk. lugros/, Alb. lungë, Arm. lucanel/ludzanel, Ir. lucht/, Gm. /Lücke; /Luke, Lith. laužti, Ltv. lauzt, Skr. रुजति (rujati), Av. uruxti, Welsh llwyth, Eng. tōlūcan/
*lino- flax Lat. līnum, Gk. linon, Lith. linas, Ltv. lini, Old Prussian linno, Ir. lín/líon, Alb. liri/lîni, Goth. lein, Polish len, Russ. лён (lën), Welsh llin, Eng. lin/linen, Gm. lin/Leinen, ON lín, OCS lĭnŭ
*luHs- louse Lith. liulė, Welsh llau, Eng. lūs/louse, Gm. lūs/Laus, ON lús
*lāu- to acquire Gk. leia, Goth. laun, OCS lovŭ, Russ. ловить (lovit'), Ir. lúag/, Welsh llawen, Gm. lōn/Lohn, Lith. lavinti, ON laun, Eng. lēan/, Skr. लोतम् (lotam), Polish łowić

m[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*magʰ- to be able Pers. magus/, Lith. magėti, Ltv. megt, Eng. meaht/might; mæg/may, OCS mogǫ, Gm. magan/mögen, Polish mogę, ON mega, Russ. мочь (moč'), Skr. मघ (magha), Toch. mokats/, Gk. mēkhos, Goth. magan, Arm. mart'ans
*magʰó- young Goth. magus, Gaul. Magurīx, Ir. maug/, Av. maġava, Alb. makth, Ltv. mač, Gm. magad/Magd, Eng. mægð/maid, Welsh meudwy, ON mǫgr
*mak- pouch Lith. maišas, Ltv. maks, Ir. mén/, Welsh megin, Gm. mago/Magen, Eng. maga/maw, ON magi, OCS mosina, Russ. мошна (mošna), Polish moszna, Old Prussian dantimax
*man- hand Gk. mane, Lat. manus, Eng. mund/—, Gm. munt/Vormund, ON mundr
*marko- horse Gaul. markan, Ir. marc/marcach, Welsh march, Eng. mere/mare, Gm. marah/Mähre, ON marr
*mat- mattock Lat. mateola, Skr. मत्य (matya), Russ. мотыга (motyga), Polish motyka, Gm. modela, Gaul. matog, Welsh matog
*me me Alb. mua, Lat. me, Umbrian mehe, Eng. mec/me, Gm. mih/mich, Ir. mé/mé, Russ. меня, мне, мной (menja; mne; mnoj), Hitt. ammuk, Lyc. amu, Lyd. amu, Goth. mik, ON mik; mér, Polish mi; mię; mnie, Gk. eme, Skr. मम् (mam), Av. mam, Welsh mi, Pers. /man, Venetic mego, Lith. man, Kurd. (i)m(in)
*med- measure, consider Lat. meditor, Welsh meddu, Gk. medomai, ON meta, Eng. metan/mete; ǣmtig/empty, Arm. mit/mid, Skr. मस्ति (masti), Av. azdā, Pers. azdā/, Umbrian meřs, Oscan meddiss, Av. midiur/, Toch. mem/maim, Goth. mitan, Gm. mezzan/messen
*medʰ-u- mead Skr. मधु (madhu), OCS medŭ, Russ. мёд (mjod), Lith. medus, Ltv. medus, Eng. meodu/mead, Gk. methu, Av. maðu, Kamviri mura, Kashmiri mäch, Polish miód, Welsh medd, Toch. mit, Gm. metu/Met, ON mjǫðr, Ir. mid/, Old Prussian meddo, Osset. myd/mud, Luw. maddu-
*medʰyo- between Gaul. Mediolānum, Eng. ælemidde/middle, Russ. между (meždu), Gm. mitti/Mitte, Skr. मध्य (madhya), Kamviri pâmüč, Goth. midjis, ON meðal, Polish między, Illyr. metu, Lith. medis, Ltv. mežs, Arm. mēj/mēč, Oscan mefiaí, Pers. /mēān, Old Prussian median, Lat. medium, Oscan mefiaí, Welsh mewnin, Ir. mid/, Av. maiðya, OCS mežda
* moon, month Gk. mēn, Toch. mañ/meñe, Lat. mēnsis, Eng. mōna/moon, OCS meseci, Polish miesiąc, Russ. месяц (mesjats), Skr. मास (māsa), Arm. amis, Av. maoh, Ir. mí/mí, ON mani, Gm. mano/Mond, Goth. mena, Alb. muaj, Lith. mėnuo, Ltv. meness, Welsh mis, Kamviri mos, Pers. /māh, Osset. mæj, Old Prussian menig, Kurd. mang
*mei- small Hitt. meiu-, Lat. minor, Gk. meiōn, OCS mĭnii, Russ. менее (menee), Gm. min/minder, Goth. mins, ON minnr, Skr. मिनाति (mināti), Oscan menvum, Toch. /maiwe, Eng. min/, Luw. mawa
*mei- to change Lat. mūnus, Eng. gemǣne/mean, Gm. gimeini/gemein, Goth. gamains, Skr. मयते (mayate); मेनि (meni), OCS mĕna, Russ. менять (menjat'), Lith. mainyti, Ltv. mains, Ir. móin/, Welsh mwyn, Polish zmiana, Av. maēni, Hitt. immiya-
*meigʰ- to urinate Skr. मेहति (mehati), Av. maēsati, Lith. myžti, Ltv. mīzt, Russ. мезга (mezga), Arm. mizel, Toch. —/miśo, Gk. omeihein, ON míga, Goth. maihstus, Eng. māsc/mash, Gm. /Maisch; miskan/mischen, Lat. mingere, Kurd. méz
*meldʰ- lightning Old Prussian mealde, Lith. milna, Russ. молния (molnija)
*melH₁- to grind, rub, break up OCS melję, Russ. мелю (melju), Lith. malti, Ltv. malt, Toch. malyw-/mely-, Eng. melo/meal, Alb. miell, Arm. malem, Gk. mulos, Goth. malan, ON mala, Gm. malan/mahlen, Lat. molere, Umbrian kumaltu, Welsh malu, Ir. melim/meilim, Hitt. malla, Polish mleć
*melk- wet->milk Lith. malkas, Ltv. malks, Gk. melkion, OCS mlĕko, Russ. молоко (moloko), Polish mleko
*melǵ- to milk Lat. mulgeō, Eng. melcan/milk, Gm. melcan/melken, Goth. miluks, ON mjölk, Toch. malke/malkwer, Gk. amelgō, Ir. bligim/, Welsh blith, Lith. melžti, Russ. молозиво (molozivo), Skr. मर्जति (marjati), Alb. mjel
*memso- flesh Skr. मांस (māsa), Lat. membrum, Old Prussian mensā, Goth. mimz, Russ. мясо (mjaso), Alb. mish, Arm. mis, Toch. /mīsa, Gk. mēnigks, Kashmiri maz, Lith. mėsa, Ltv. miesa, Ir. mír/mír
*men- mind Gk. menos, Lat. mēns, Skr. मनस् (manas), Av. manah, Eng. gemynd/mind, Goth. muns, ON minni; man, Gm. minna/Minne, Lith. mintis, Ltv. minēt, Old Prussian mēntimai, OCS mineti, Russ. мнить (mnit'), Arm. mitk'/midk', Alb. mund, Pers. mainyāhay/, Toch. mnu/mañu, Ir. dermet/dearmad, Welsh cof
*mer- to die Lat. mortŭus, OCS mrĭtvŭ, Russ. мереть (meret'), Lith. mirti, Ltv. mirt, Skr. मरति (marati), Av. miryeite, Arm. menil, Gk. brotos, Eng. morþor/murder, Gm. mord/Mord, ON morð, Goth. maurþr, Gaul. marvos, Kamviri me, Osset. maryn/, Polish mord; umrzeć, Ir. marb/marbh, Welsh marw, Pers. amariyata/mordan, Hitt. mer, Kurd. mirin
*meǵ- great Gk. megas, Lat. magnus, Arm. mec/medz, Illyr. mag, Gaul. Magiorīx, Alb. madh, Skr. महयति (mahayati), Toch. māk/mākā, Goth. mikils, Phryg. meka-, Eng. micil/much, ON mikill, Av. mazant, Pers. /meh, Hitt. makkes, Ir. mochtae/, Welsh Maclgwn, Gm. mihhil/— Kurd. mezin
*misdʰo- fee Skr. मीढ (mīha), Av. mīžda, Goth. mizdō, Russ. мзда (mzda), Gk. misthos, Gm. mieta/Miete, Pers. /muzd, Eng. mēd/meed, OCS mĭzda
*mon- neck Skr. मन्या (manyā), Lat. monīle, Eng. manu/mane, Gm. mana/Mähne, Ir. muin/muin, Gk. mannon, Russ. монисто (monisto), Welsh mwnwgl, Gaul. maniakēs, ON mǫn, Av. minu
*mor- blackberry Gk. moron, Arm. mori, Lat. mōrum, Hitt. muri, Ir. smér/smeur, Welsh mwyaren
* sea, lake Lat. mare, Polish morze, Russ. море (more), Gaul. Aremorici, Lith. marios, Ltv. mare, Skr. मर्यादा (maryādā), Eng. mere/mere; mersc/marsh, Gm. meri/Meer, Old Prussian mary, Welsh môr, Ir. muir/muir, Goth. marei, ON marr, Alb. përmjerr
*morwi- ant Lat. formīca, Ir. moirb/, Av. maoiri, Skr. वम्र (vamra), Gk. μύρμηγξ/μυρμήγκι (mirmigs/mirmigi), ON maurr, Crimean Gothic miera, Arm. mrjiun/mrčiun, Polish mrówka, Alb. morr, Pers. /murče, OCS mravie, Russ. муровей (murovej), Toch. /warme, Kurd. Mérú, Bret. merienenn/merien
*mosgo- brain Russ. мозг (mozg), Av. mazga, Skr. मज्जन् (majjan), Kashmiri massunt, Old Prussian musgeno, Gm. marag/Mark, Pers. /maġz, Polish mózg, Toch. mäśśunt/, Lith. smagenės, Ltv. smadzenis, Eng. mearg/marrow, ON mergr, Kurd. méšk
*mreǵʰú- short Lat. brevis, Av. mərəzujiti, Gm. murgi/, Eng. mirige/merry, Gk. brakhus, Gk. gamaúrgjan
*mu- fly Lith. musė, Ltv. muša, Lat. musca, Russ. муха (muxa), Gm. mucka/Mücke, Eng. mycg/midge, Alb. mizë, Gk. muia, Arm. mun, Kashmiri ma.čh, OCS mŭšĭ, Polish mucha, ON mý, Pers. /magas, Old Prussian muso
*muH₁s- mouse Skr. मूष् (mū), Av. mus, Lat. mūs, Gk. mūs, Russ. мышь (myš'), Arm. muk/mug, Alb. mi, Gm. mus/Maus, Eng. mūs/mouse, Kamviri musa, Pers. /muš, ON mús, Polish mysz, Lith. musė, Osset. myst/mistæ
* mother Arm. mayr, Alb. motër, Lith. motina, Ltv. māte, Old Prussian mūti, Gaul. mātir, Ir. máthir/máthair, Kashmiri mā.j, Lat. māter, Oscan maatreís, Umbrian matrer, Gk. mētēr, Russ. мать (mat'), Skr. मातृ (māt), Av. mātar, Toch. mācar/mācer, Gm. muoter/Mutter, Eng. mōdor/mother, Welsh modryb, Kamviri motr, ON móðir, Pers. /mādar, Phryg. mater, Osset. mad/madæ, Polish matka, OCS
*mánu- person Skr. मनु (manu), Av. Manuščiθra, Eng. mann/man, Gm. man/Mann, Goth. manna, ON maðr, OCS Russ. муж (muž), Lith. žmogus, Kamviri mânša, Pers. /mard, Polish mąż, Kurd. mér
*mélH₁-it- honey Gk. melitos, Lat. mel, Arm. meġr, Alb. mjaltë, Gaul. Melissus, Ir. mil/, Goth. miliþ, Eng. mildēaw/mildew, Gm. milltou/Mehltau, Welsh mêl, Hitt. milit, Luw. mallit-, Palaic malit-
*méne / *me-ós my, mine Eng. /mine, Gm. /mein, Kurd. ímin
*móiso- (animal) hide Lith. maišas, Ltv. maiss, Skr. मेष (mea), Av. maēša, ON meiss, Russ. мех (mex), Gm. meissa/, Old Prussian moasis, Alb. meshinë; mill

n[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
* cloud Lat. nebŭlō, OCS nebo, Russ. небо (nebo), Skr. नभस् (nabhas), Gk. nephos, Hitt. nepiš, Lyc. tabahaza, Luw. tappaš-, Gm. nebul/Nebel, Eng. nifol/—, Welsh nef, Kamviri niru, Polish niebo, Lith. debesis, Ltv. debess, Av. nabah, Ir. nem/neamh, ON niflhel
*negʷʰro- kidney Lat nefrōnes, Gk. nephrōs/, Gm. nioro/Niere, ON nýra
*neH₁tr- snake Lat. natrix, Eng. nǣddre/adder, Gm. natara/Natter, Welsh neidr, Goth. nadrs, ON naðr, Ir. nathir/nathair
*neH₂-u- corpse Toch. nut/naut, Goth. naus, OCS navi, Russ. навь (nav'), Welsh newyn, Gm. not/, ON nār, Eng. néo-/—, Old Prussian nowis, Lith. novyti, Ltv. nāve, Ir. núne/
*neigʷ- to wash Lat. noegeum, Ir. nigim/nighim, ON nykr, Gm. nihhus/Nix, Gk. niptō, Skr. नेनेक्ति (nenekti), Welsh enneint, Eng. nicor/
*neik- to winnow Lith. niekoti, Ltv. niekāt, Gk. neiklon, Welsh nithio
*nem- to allot/distribute Lat. numerus, Ir. nem/nimh, Gm. neman/nehmen, Gk. nemō, Goth. niman, ON nema, Lith. nuomas, Ltv. noma, Eng. niman/numb, Av. nəmah, Toch. /ñemek, Russ. немой (nemoj)
*neḱ- dead person, death Skr. नश्यति (naśyati), Av. nasyeiti, Gk. nekros, Lith. našlys, Lat. nex, Toch. näk/näk, Ir. éc/eug, Welsh angeu, ON Naglfar
*ni down Skr. नि (ni), Eng. niþera/nether-, Gm. nidar/nieder, ON niðr, Gk. neiothen, OCS nizu, Russ. низ (niz)
*nogʷó- naked Eng. nacod/naked, Goth. naqaþs, Skr. नग्न (nagna), Hitt. nekumant, Gk. gumnos, Lat. nūdus, Lith. nuogas, Ltv. nogs, Ir. nocht/, Gm. nackot/nackt, Polish nagi, ON nakinn, Av. maġna, Welsh noeth, OCS nagŭ, Russ. нагой (nagoj), Kashmiri nagay
* night Gk. nuks, Lat. nox, Lith. naktis, Ltv. nakts, Gm. naht/Nacht, Skr. नक्ति(nakti), Hitt. nekuz 'of night' (< genitive *nekʷt-s), Russ. ночь (noč'}, Alb. natë, Ir. innocht/anochd, Toch. nakcu/nekcīye, Welsh nos, Eng. niht/night, Polish noc, Old Prussian naktin, Goth. nahts, ON nótt, OCS nosti
* nine Arm. inn/inn/innĕ, Alb. nëntë/nândë, Lith. devyni, Ltv. deviņi, Gaul. navan, Gm. niun/neun, Eng. nigon/nine, Gk. ennea, Av. nauua, Ir. nói/naoi, Kashmiri nav, Lyc. ñuñtãta-, Kamviri nu, Lat. novem, Oscan nuven, ON níu, Old Prussian newīnjai, Pers. nava/noh, OCS devętĭ, Polish dziewięć, Russ. девять (devjat'), Skr. नव (nava), Toch. ñu, Umbrian nuvim, Goth. niun, Welsh naw
*néH₂-u- swim *néH₂-u- "ship": Skr. नौ (nāu), Ir. nau/, Gk. naus, Lat. nāvis, Av. navāza, Pers. nāviyā/nav, Arm. nav, ON nōr, Osset. nau, Alb. anije, Welsh noe, Eng. nōwend/—
*népot- (nom. *népōt-s gen. *nept-ós) grandson/nephew Lat. nepōs, Skr. नपात् (napāt), Av. napāt, Gk. anepsios/, Alb. nip, Eng. nefa/—, Gaul. nei, Gm. nevo/Neffe, Welsh nai, Kamviri nâvo, Pers. napā/nave, Lith. nepuotis, Ir. necht/; níath/, OCS nestera, Old Russ. нестера (nestera), Polish nieściora
*nu now Alb. tani, Lith. nū, Ltv. nu, Gm. nu/nun, Lat. nunc, Eng. nū/now, Gk. nu/, Hitt. nu, Luw. nanun, ON nū, Pers. nūra/, Old Prussian teinu, Skr. नू (nū), Toch. nu/nano, Goth. nu, OCS nu
*néwo- new (full grade of nu "now".) Lat. novus, OCS novŭ, Russ. новый (novyj), Gk. neos, Hitt. newa, Eng. nīwe/new, Skr. नव (nava), Av. nava, Lith. naujas, Ltv. naujš, Gaul. Noviodūnum, Arm. nor, Gm. niuwi/neu, Kamviri nuĩ, Kashmiri nōv, Osset. nog/, Polish nowy, Welsh newydd, Pers. /now, Toch. ñu/ñuwe, Old Prussian nauns, Oscan Núvellum, Goth. niujis, Ir. nue/nua, ON nýr, Thrac. neos, Luw. nāwa
* nest secondary root, from ni- + sed. OCS gnĕzdo, Russ. гнездо (gnezdo), Eng. nest/nest, Arm. nist, Skr. नीड (nīḍá), Ir. net/net, Gm. nest/Nest, Polish gniazdo, Welsh nyth, Lat. nidus

p[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*pasto- solid Skr. पस्त्यम् (pastyam), Gm. festi/fest, Eng. fæst/fast Arm. hast/hasd, Goth. fastan, ON fastr
*peg- breast Skr. पक्षस् (pakas), Lat. pectus, Ltv. paksis, Russ. пах (pax), Toch. päśśäṃ/päścane
*peh₂- to protect Skr. पाति (pāti), Toch. pās/pāsk, Gk. poimēn, Lat. pāstum, Gm. fuoten/Futter, Eng. fēdan/feed, Lith. piemuo, Goth. fōdjan; fōdr, Av. pāiti, Pers. xšaθrapāvan/, ON føða; fōðr
*peh₃i- to drink Russ. пить (pit'), Skr. पा (pā), Gk. Alb. pi, Ir. ibim/ibhim, Welsh yfed, Polish pić, Lith. puota, Old Prussian poutwei, Hitt. pas, Thrac. pinon, Arm. əmpelik'/əmbelik', Lat. pōtōāre, Umbrian puni, OCS pitijĭ
* to pluck *peḱ-u- "cattle"; Gk. pekō, Lat. pandō, Lith. pekus, Old Prussian pecku, Skr. पशु (paśu), Av. pasu, Goth. faihu, Eng. feoh/fee, Alb. pilë, Gm. fihu/vieh, ON fé, Arm. asr, Kurd. pas
*pekʷ- to cook Lat. coquere, Alb. pjek, Russ. пеку (peku), Skr. पचति (pacati), Toch. päk/päk, Welsh poeth, Gk. pepsis, Kamviri puk, Lith. kepti, Ltv. cept, OCS pekǫ, Pers. /puxtan, Polish piekę, Old Prussian pektis, Eng. āfigen/
*pel- flour Old Prussian pelwo, Gk. palunein, Lat. palea, Skr. पलाल (palāla), Lith. pelūs, Ltv. pelus, Russ. полова (polova), Polish plewa
*pel- gray Alb. plak, Arm. alik', Skr. पलित (palita), Av. pouruša, Pers. /pūrū, XMK pellus, Gk. pelitnos, Lat. palleō, Ir. laith/, Welsh llwyd, Lith. pelekas, Ltv. pelēks, Old Prussian pele, Russ. пелёсый (pelësyj), ON fǫlr, Gm. falo/, Eng. fealo/
*pel- skin Gk. pelos; pilon, Lat. pellis, Russ. пелена (pelena), Goth. fill, Gm. fël/Fell, Eng. filmen/film, Lith. plėnė, Ltv. plēne, Old Prussian pleynis, ON feldr
pelh₂- flat Hitt. pališ, Arm. lain, Lith. plōna, Ltv. plāns, Old Prussian plonis, Gaul. Arelicca, Ir. lár, Welsh llawr, Eng. feld/field, Gm. feld/feld, Gk. planēs; plassō, Skr. पृथु (pthu), Av. fraθah, Lat. plānus, Polish płaski, Russ. плоский (ploskij); nidar ploskŭ, OCS ploskŭ
*pent- road Lat. pontis, Gk. pontos, Skr. पन्था (panthā), Av. pantå, Russ. путь (put'), Goth. finþan, Eng. findan/find, Gm. findan/finden, ON finna, Arm. hun, Kamviri put, Old Prussian pintis, Ir. /és, OCS pǫtĭ, Pers. paθim/
*perd- to fart Russ. пердеть (perdet'), Skr. पर्दते (pardate), Lith. persti, Ltv. pirst, Phryg. perdomai, Alb. pjerth; pordh, Eng. feortan/fart, Gm. ferzan/furzen, ON freta, Polish pierdzieć, Gk. perdein, Av. pərəðaiti, Welsh rhech
*perkʷu- oak see Perkwunos. Lat. quercus, Lith. perkunas, Ltv. pērkons, Skr. पर्कती (parkatī), ON fura, Eng. furh/fir, Gm. foraha/Föhre, Welsh perth, Goth. faírguni
*pers- dust Toch. pärs/pärs, Av. paršuya, Lith. purkšti, Ltv. pārsla, ON fors, Hitt. pappars, Skr. पृसति (psati), OCS praxŭ, Russ. прах (prax)
*persn-eh₂- heel Lat. perna/pernis, Skr. पार्ष्नि (pārni), Hitt. parsina, Goth. fairsna, Gm. fërsana/Ferse, Gk. ptera, Eng. fiersn/— , Pers. /pāšne(h), Lith. pentinas
*perḱ- rib Lith. piršys, Skr. पर्शुस् (parśus), Av. parəsu, Osset. fars, OCS persi
*pes- penis Gk. peos, Lat. pēnis, Gm. faselt/Fasel, ON fösull, Eng. fæsl/—, Skr. पसस् (pasas)
*pet- to fly Eng. feðer/feather, Gm. fedarah/Feder, ON fjǫðr, Lat. petō, Skr. पतति (patati), Hitt. pattar, Gk. pteruks, Welsh eterin, Pers. udapatatā/, Arm. t'č'im, Ir. ette/iteóg, Welsh aden, Av. pataiti, Ltv. pētīt
*pet- to open arms Gk. petalon, Av. paθana, Eng. fæðm/fathom, ON faðmr, Gm. fadam/Faden, Scottish Gaelic aitheamh
* father Lat. pater, Oscan patír, Umbrian pater, Gk. Toch. pācar/pācer, Gaul. ātir, Skr. पितृ (pit), Gm. fater/Vater, Ir. athir/athair, Eng. fæder/father, Welsh gwaladr, Kashmiri petū'r, Pers. pitā/pedar, Osset. fyd/fidæ, ON faðir, Goth. fadar, Gaul. Ateronius
*pisd-eh₂- vulva Russ. пизда (pizda), Lith. pyzda, Ltv. pīzda, Alb. pith, Scots Gaelic pit
*pleH₂k- to hit Lat. plangō, Eng. flōk/fluke; flōcan/, Gk. plēttō, OCS plakati, Russ. плакать (plakat'), Polish płakać, Lith. plakti, Ir. lén/, Goth. flōkan, ON flókinn, Gm. fluoh/Fluch
*plek- to plait/braid Gk. plekein, Lat. plectere, ON flétta, Goth. flahto, Gm. flehtan/flechten, Eng. fleohtan/—, Skr. प्रश्न (praśna), Av. ərəzato frašnəm, OCS plesti, Russ. плету (pletu), Polish pleść, Alb. plaf, Lith. pinti
*pléu-mon- lung Gk. pleumōn, Skr. क्लोमन् (kloman), Lith. plaučiai, Ltv. plaušas, Russ. плюче (pljuče), Old Prussian plauti, Serb. pluća
*plōu- flea Lith. blusa, Ltv. blusa, Russ. блоха (bloxa), Polish pchła, Arm. lu, Skr. प्लुषि (plui), Gk. psulla, Alb. plesht, Pashto vrāž.a, ON flo, Eng. flēah/flea, Gm. flōh/Floh
* five Arm. hing/hing/hink, Alb. pesë/pesë, Lith. penki, Ltv. pieci, Gaul. pempe, Gm. fimf/fünf, Eng. fīf/five, Phryg. pinke, Gk. pente, Av. pača, Ir. cóic/cúig, Kashmiri pā.~tsh, Kamviri puč, Luw. panta, Oscan pompe, ON fimm, Old Prussian pēnkjāi, Osset. fondz/fondz, Pers. panča/panj, OCS pętĭ, Polish pięć, Russ. пять (pjat'), Skr. पञ्च (pañca), Toch. päñ/piś, Lat. quinque, Umbrian pumpe, Goth. fimf, Welsh pump
*pneu- to breathe Gk. pneuma, ON fnysa, Eng. fnēosan/sneeze Gm. fnehan/
* foot Lith. pėda, Ltv. pēda, Lat. pēs, Umbrian peři, Skr. पाद (pāda), Eng. fōt/foot, Arm. votk'/vodk', Gk. Alb. poshtë, Toch. pe/paiyye, Osset. fad/, Gm. fuoz/Fuß, OCS pēs, Russ. пеший (pešij), Polish pieszy, Old Prussian pe'da', Hitt. pata, Lyc. pede-, Luw. pati-, Av. pâdha, ON fótr, Goth. fotus, Pers. /pa, Gaul. candetum, XMK argiopus
*poimno- foam Lat. pūmex, Lith. puta, Skr. फेन (phena), OCS pĕna, Polish piana, Russ. пена (pena), Eng. fām/foam, Gm. feim/Feim, Osset. fink, Old Prussian spoayno
*porḱo- farrow Gk. porkos, Lat. porcus, Lith. paršas, Old Prussian parstian, Russ. поросята (porosjata), Polish prosię; prosiak, Eng. fearh/farrow, Ir. orc/, Gm. farah/Ferkel, Umbrian purka, Kurd. purs, Saka pāsa, Gaul. orko
*prai- to like Skr. प्रीणाति (prīāti), OCS prĕjǫ, Russ. прижать (prižat'), Ltv. prieks, Gk. praos, Av. frā/, Goth. freis, Eng. frēond/friend, Gm. friunt/Freund, Polish przyjaźń(?); sprzyjać, ON Frigg, Welsh rhydd, Ir. ríar/
*preu- to jump Russ. прыгать (prygat'), Skr. प्रवते (pravate), Gm. frosc/Frosch, Eng. frogga/frog, ON froskr, Lith. šokt, Pers. /Paredan
*preḱ- to ask, to pray Lat. poscō, Toch. prak/prek, Skr. पृच्छति (pcchati), OCS prositi, Russ. просить (prosit'), Lith. piršti, Ltv. pirslis, Gm. frāga/fragen; forscōn/forschen, Eng. frignan/—, ON fregna, Goth. fraihnan, Pers. /pursēdan, Av. pərəsaiti, Oscan aparsam/, Arm. harc'nel, Welsh archaf, Ir. /arco, Toch. pärk/pärk, Umbrian pepurkurent
*prih₁-mó- / *prō-to- foremost
(-> first)
Alb. i parë, Av. pairi, Lith. pirmas, Ltv. pirmais, Gm. furist/Fürst; fruo/früh, Eng. fyrst/first, Gk. prōtos, Hitt. para, Av. paoiriia, Ir. er/air, Kamviri pürük, Lyc. pri, OCS pĭrvŭ, Oscan perum, ON fyrstr, Old Prussian pariy, Osset. fyccag; farast/farast, Polish pierwszy, Russ. первый (pervyj), Skr. प्रथम (prathama), Toch. parwät/parwe, Lat. primus, Umbrian pert, Welsh ar
*psten- breast Gk. stēthos, Arm. stin/sdin, Skr. स्तन (stana), Av. fštāna, Lith. spenys, Ltv. spenis, ON speni, Gm. spunni/Spanferkel, Ir. sine/sine, Alb. gji, Old Prussian spenis, Pers. /pestan, Eng. spane/—
*puhr- wheat Skr. पूर (pūra), Gk. puros/, Lith. pūrai, Ltv. pūŗi, Old Prussian pure, Eng. fyrs/furze, OCS pyre, Russ. пырей (pyrej)
*pulh₂- hair Skr. पुल (pula), Ir. ulcha/ulcha, Gk. puligges/, Kurd. purt
*péh₂wr̥- (gen. *ph₂un-ós) bonfire Hitt. paur, Toch. por/pūwar, Gk. pur, Umbrian pir, ON fúrr, Eng. fȳr/fire, Polish perz, Arm. hur, Gm. fiur/Feuer, Old Prussian panno, Oscan purasiai, Goth. fōn, Czech pýř

r[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*rap- turnip Lat. rapum, OCS repa, Russ. репа (repa), Lith. ropė, Gm. raba/Rübe, Gk. ῥαπύς (rhapus), Polish rzepa
*rebʰ- to roof Gk. ἐρέφω (erephō), OCS rebro, Russ. ребро (rebro), Eng. ribb/rib, ON rif, Gm. ribba/Rippe, Polish żebro, Alb. brinjë
*rep- to snatch Lat. rapere, Gk. ἐρέπτομαι (ereptomai); ἁρπάζω (harpazein)
*resg- to plait Lat. restis, Lith. regsti, Ltv. režģīt, OCS rozga, Russ. розга (rozga), Skr. रज्जु (rajju), Eng. resc/, Polish rózga
*rotH₂-o- wheel Lat. rota, Alb. rrath, Lith. ratas, Ltv. rats, Gaul. Rotomagus, Gm. rad/Rad, Eng. rodur/, Ir. /rath, Skr. रथ (ratha), Welsh rhod, Av. raθa, ON rǫðull

s[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mei- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. смеяться (smejat'sja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. meidos, Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk,
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. mermeros, Arm. mormok'/mormos/mormos, Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. nēþla, ON nál, Russ. нить (nit'), Lat. neō, Gk. nēθō, Welsh nodwydd
*(s)tauro- bison Av. staora, Goth. stiur, Lith. tauras, Ltv. tauriņš, Gk. tauros, Gaul. Tarbos, OCS turu, Russ. тур (tur), Polish tur, Eng. steor/steer, Gm. stior/Stier, Old Prussian tauris, Welsh tarw, ON stjórr, Lat. taurus, Oscan turuf, Alb. taroç, Ir. tarb/
*(s)teg- (*stegō [1ps]) to cover Gk. στέγω (stégō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог (stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂-i- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. tēusiē/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. steira, Lat. sterilis, Arm. sterj/sderč, Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. stairō, Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*(sm̥-)ǵʰéslo- thousand Skr. सहस्रम् (sahasram), Av. hazarəm, Pers. /hāzar, Gk. khilioi, Lat. mīlle, Toch. wälts/yaltse
*saus- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухой (suxoj), Gk. hauos/, Lat. sūdus
*sed - to sit OCS Russ. сидеть (sidet'), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. sitan, Gk. hedzomai/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सद् (sad), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. nstil/nsdil, Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*segh - to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω (ekhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seH₁- to sow Russ. сеять; семя (seyat'; semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS Gm. sāen/säen, ON sá, Goth. saian, Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seH₁i- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ēthō, Russ. сито (sito), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. sōkjan, ON sǿkja, Gk. hēgesthai, Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι (hepomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. helpos, Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. salbon
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ama, Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
* *sm̥- [prefix] one, together Lat. semel, Arm. mi/mek/meg, Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. heis, Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. сам (sam), Skr. सकृत् (sakt), Toch. sas/e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. sama
*semi- half Lat. sēmis, Gm. sami/—, Eng. sām-/sand-blind, Goth. sami-, Skr. समि (sami), Gk. hēmisus, Kamviri sâmaũ
*senH₁ó- old Lat. senex, Lith. senas, Ltv. sens, Gaul. Senognatus, ON sina, Skr. सन (sana), Av. hana, Arm. hin, Gk. henos, Welsh hyn, Goth. sineigs, Ir. sen/
* seven Arm. evt'n/yot'/yot'ĕ, Alb. shtatë/shtatë, Lith. septyni, Ltv. septiņi, Gaul. sextan, Gm. sibun/sieben, Eng. seofon/seven, Gk. ἑπτά (hepta), Av. hapta, Ir. secht/seacht, Hitt. šipta-, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Lat. septem, Oscan seften, ON sjau, Old Prussian septīnjai, Osset. avd/avd, Pers. /haft, OCS Polish siedem, Russ. семь (sem'), Skr. सप्त (sapta), Toch. pät/ukt, Goth. sibun, Welsh saith
*septm̥-ḱómt-h₂ seventy Lat. septuāgintā, Gk. heptákonta, Ir. /seachtó, Skr. सप्तति (saptati)
*serpe- to creep Alb. gjarpër/gjarpën, Gk. ἕρπω (herpō), Lat. serpō, Skr. सृप् (sp), Kashmiri so.rūph
*seuyó- left (direction) Skr. सव्य (savya), Welsh aswy, Av. haoya, Toch. —/saiwai, OCS šujĭ, Russ. шуй (šuj)
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον (skandalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа (ščepa), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. skeparnion, Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. mauruk/maurug, Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*smeru- grease Ir. smiur/, Gk. smuris, Lat. medulla, Gm. smero/Schmer, Welsh mer, Eng. smerian/smear, Polish smar, Toch. /mare, Lith. smarsas, ON smjǫr, Goth. smaírþr
*sneigʷʰ- snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег (sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. nipha, Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. snaiws, Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*sneudʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. nuthon, Lat. nūbēs
*snúso- daughter-in-law Skr. स्नुषा (snuā), Eng. snoru/—, Gk. nuos, Lat. nurus, Arm. nu, OCS snŭxa, Polish snecha, Russ. сноха (snoxa), Alb. nusa, Crimean Gothic schuos, ON snor, Gm. snur/Schnur
*sol- salt Lat. sāl, Umbrian salu, Toch. sāle/sālyiye, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sāļš, Eng. sealt/salt, Gk. ἅλς (hals), Arm. aġ, Ir. salann/, OCS Russ. соль (sol'), Gm. salz/Salz, Polish sól, Welsh halen, Alb. gjelbson, ON salt, Goth. salt, Old Prussian sal, Skr. सलिल (salila), Illyr. Salapia
*solwo- whole Toch. salu/solme, Gk. holos, Arm. olj/volj/volč, Ir. slán/slán, Alb. gjallë, Skr. सर्व (sarva), Av. haurva, Kamviri sũdi, Polish sowity, Welsh holl, Lat. salvus, Oscan salavs, Umbrian saluvom, Russ. сулей (sulej), Pers. haluva/, OCS sulĕi
*sp(y)eu- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. ptuein, OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. spiewan, Skr. ष्टीवति (īvati), Av. spāma, Arm. t'us, Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν (splēn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. p'aycałn/p'aycaġ/p'aydzaġ, OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка (selezjonka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. arbi/arpi, Alb. gjerbë, Gk. rhopheō, Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать (sjorbat'), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать (stat'), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. standan, ON stóð, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. histami, Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. stanam/sdanam, Lyc. ta-
*steigh- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. steigan, ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. stikhos, Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достигать (dostigat'), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*suH₁- swine Eng. sū/sow, Ltv. sivēns, Russ. свин (svin), Skr. सूकर (sūkara), Alb. thi, Gk. hus, Gm. sū/Sau, Toch. —/suwo, Ir. socc/soc, Welsh hwch, Polish świnia, Lat. sūs, Umbrian sif, ON sýr, Goth. swein, Av.
*suro- cheese Lith. sūris, Russ. сыр (syr), ON surr, Alb. hirrë, Polish ser
*swe-sór- sister Eng. sweostor/sister, Gm. swester/Schwester, Skr. स्वसृ (svas), OCS Russ. сестра (sestra), Polish siostra, Kamviri sus, Ir. siur/siur, Arm. k'uyr, Toch. ar/er, Gk. eor/—, Lat. soror. Welsh chwaer, Gaul. suiior, ON systir, Goth. swistar, Av. xvahar, Lith. sesuo, Old Prussian swestro, Pers. /xāhar
*swe-ḱuro- father-/mother-in-law Russ. свекровь (svekrov'), Skr. श्वशुर (śvaśura); श्वश्रू (śvaśrū), Lith. šešuras, Gm. swigur/Schwieger, Welsh chwegr, Arm. skesur/sgesur, Gk. hekuros, Lat. socrus, Alb. vjehërr, Kamviri č.uč., Eng. swēor/—, Av. xvasura-, Polish świekra, Goth. swaíhrō, ON svǽra, OCS svekŭrŭ
*sweh₂d-u- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. hēdus, Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sötr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. sutis, Toch. swār/swāre
*swei- to whistle Russ. свист (svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. sizō/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. swiglōn, Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweid- sweat Arm. k'rtink'/k'rdink', Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. hidros, Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. swiltan, ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. hēlios, Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. hupnos, Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон (son), Arm. k'nel, Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сыпать (sypat'), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. saurga, Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. erk/erg
* six Arm. vec'/vec'/vec', Alb. gjashtë, Lith. šeši, Ltv. seši, Gaul. suex, Gm. sēhs/sechs, Eng. siex/six, Gk. heks, Av. xš.uuaš, Illyr. ses-, Ir. sé/sé, Kashmiri śe, Kamviri u, Lat. sex, Oscan sehs, ON sex, Old Prussian usjai, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Pers. /šeš, OCS šestĭ, Polish sześć, Russ. шесть (šest'), Skr. षष् (a), Toch. äk/kas, Umbrian sehs, Goth. saihs, Welsh chwech
*swonos- to sound Skr. स्वनति (svanati), Lat. sonāre, Eng. swan/swan, Gm. swan/Schwan, ON svanr, Av. xvanatčaxra, Ir. senim/seinm
*swordó- black Lat. sordēre, Eng. sweart/swarthy, Gm. swarz/schwarz, Goth. swarts, ON svartr, Lith. sartas
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. siujan, Gk. ὑμήν (humēn), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel
* sun Lat. sōl, Lith. saulė, Ltv. saule, Welsh haul, Gk. hēlios, Eng. sigel/—; sunne/sun, OCS slunice, Russ. солнце (solntse), Skr. सूर्य (sūrya), Av. hvarə, Gm. sunna/Sonne, ON sól; sunna, Goth. sauil; sunno, Welsh haul, Ir. súil/súil, Toch. swāñce/swāñco, Kamviri su, Polish słońce, Old Prussian saule, Pers. -farnah-/
*sew- press See Soma; *sú(h₂)-nu- "son": Skr. सूनु (sūnu), Av. hunu, Lith. sūnus, Old Prussian sūnus, Eng. sunu/son, Gm. sunu/Sohn, Goth. sunus, ON sonr, OCS Russ. сын (syn), Polish syn, Gk. nios, Old Prussian soūns, Toch. se/soy, Ir. suth/suth, Thrac. sukis

t[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*tag- to touch Eng. þaccian/, Gk. tetagōn/, Gaul. Taximagulus, Ir. taise/tais, Lat. tangere
*tark- to twist Skr. तर्कु (tarku), Old Prussian tarkue, Russ. торок (torok), Toch. tark/tärk, Gk. atraktos, Lat. torqueō, Gm. drahsil/drechseln, Alb. tjerr, Ir. /trochal, Welsh torri, Eng. þrǣstan/, Polish troki
*teh₂w- to melt OCS tajetŭ, Russ. таять (tajat'), Osset. thayun, Eng. þawian/thaw, Gm. thouwen/verdauen, Arm. t'anam, Gk. tēkō, Lat. tabēre, ON þeyja, Welsh tawdd, Ir. tám/, Skr. तोयम् (toyam), Lith. tyras, Ltv. tīrelis, Polish tajać
*temó- dark Skr. त्मस् (tamas), Lith. temti, Ltv. timt, Lat. tenebrae, Av. təmah, OCS tĭmĭnŭ, Russ. тёмный (tjomnyj), Ir. temel/, Gm. themar/Dämmerung, Polish ciemny, Alb. terr, Ir. temel/, Pers. /tār, Toch. /tamāsse, Illyr. Tomaros, Gk. Temmikes/
* thin Lat. tenuis, Ir. tanae/tana, OCS tĭnŭkŭ, Russ. тонкий (tonkij), Skr. तनु (tanu), Gk. tanus, Eng. þynne/thin, Gm. thunni/dünn, Polish cienki, ON þunnr, Av. tanū, Pers. /tan, Lith. teva, Ltv. tievs
*tep- warm Alb. ftoh/ftof, Hitt. tapašša, Ir. té/, Welsh tan, ON þefr, Eng. þefian/, Skr. तपति (tapati), Av. tāpaiti, Pers. /tafte(h), Lat. tepēre, Polish ciepły, Russ. тёплый (tjoplyj), OCS teplostĭ
*ter / *tero over, through Eng. þurh/through, Gm. durh/durch, Goth. þaírh, Lat. trāns, Russ. через (čerez), Umbrian traf, Skr. तिरस् (tiras), Av. tarə, Ir. tar/, Welsh trimuceint
*ter- to cross over Gk. terthron, Alb. shtir, Hitt. tarzi, Skr. तरति (tarati), Gm. dremil/, Kamviri târa, Av. tar, Pers. viyatārayāma/, Osset. tærin, Illyr. Taros, Arm. t'arm, Lat. terminus, Umbrian termnome, Oscan teremenniú, ON þrǫmr
*ters- dry Skr. तृष्यति (tyati), Av. taršu, Arm. t'aamim, Gk. tersomai/, Alb. ter, Lat. terra; torrēre; torreō, Eng. þurst/thirst, Gm. durri/dürr, Goth. þaursus, ON þurr, Lith. trōkšti, Ir. tírim/tirim, Kashmiri treśiho.t
*teter- grouse Russ. тетерев (teterev), Polish cietrzew, Lith. teterva, Ltv. teteris, Skr. तित्तिर (tittira), Gk. tetraōn, Ir. tethra/, ON þiðurr, Arm. tatrak/dadrak, Old Prussian tatarwis, Pers. /tadarv
*teut-eh₂- tribe Gaul. teuto, Oscan touto, Umbrian totam, Old Prussian tauto, Ir. túath/túath, Illyr. teuta, Hitt. tuzzi, Lyc. tuta, Lith. tauta, Ltv. tauta, Eng. þeoð/—, Gm. diutisc/Deutsch, Goth. þiuda, ON þjóð
*teḱs- to plait Lat. textō, Lith. tašau, Ltv. tešu, Gk. tektōn, Russ. тесла (tesla), Gm. dehsa/, Skr. तक्षति (takati), Av. tašaiti, Pers. ustašana/taš, OCS tešǫ, Hitt. takš, ON þexla, Ir. tál
*tḱei- to settle secondary root from ad + ḱei. Arm. šēm, Eng. hām/home, Gm. heim/Heim, ON heimr, Goth. heims, Gk. ktizō, Skr. क्षेति (keti), Av. šaēiti, Lat. situs
*tong- to think Alb. tangë/tângë, Eng. þencan/think, Gm. thenken/denken, Lat. tongēo, Oscan tanginúd, ON þekkja, Toch. tuk/takw, Goth. þangkjan
*treb- dwelling Lat. trabēs, Oscan trííbúm, Umbrian tremnu, Lith. troba, Ltv. traba, Eng. þorp/thorp, Gm. thorf/Dorf, Gk. teremnon, Welsh treb; tref, ON ðorp; þorp, Goth. þaúrp, Ir. díthrub/
*treud- to press Lat. trūdō, Alb. treth, Welsh trym, Ir. tromm/trom, Eng. þrēat/threat, Gm. firthriogan/verdrießen, ON þrjóta, Goth. usþriutan, OCS trudŭ, Russ. труд (trud)
*trosdo- thrush Lat. turdus, Lith. strazdas, Ltv. strazds, OCS drozgu, Russ. дрозд (drozd), Polish drozd, ON þrǫstr, Eng. þrysce/thrush, Gm. thrōskala/Drossel, Ir. truit/truid, Welsh drudwy, Gk. strouthos
* tri- [prefix] three Arm. erek'/yerek'/yerek', Alb. tre/tre, Lith. trys, Ltv. trīs, Gaul. treis, Gm. drī/drei, Eng. þrēo/three, Gk. treis, Hitt. tri-, Av. θri, Illyr. tri-, Ir. treí/trí, Kashmiri tre, Lyc. trei, Kamviri tre, Oscan trís, ON þrír, Old Prussian tri, Osset. ærtæ/ærtæ, Pers. çi/se, OCS trĭje, Polish trzy, Russ. три (tri), Skr. त्रि (tri), Toch. tre/trai, Lat. trēs, Umbrian trif, Goth. þreis, Welsh tri, Phryg. thri-
*twék-o- skin Skr. त्वचस् (tvacas), Hitt. tuekkas, Gk. sakos, Kurd. twékl(e)
*télpo- space Skr. तल्प (talpa), Lith. tilpti; telpu, Ltv. tilpt; telpu, Russ. толпа (tolpa), Toch. tsälp/tälp, Ir. -tella/
*tón-r̥- thunder Eng. þunor/thunder, ON þórr, Gm. Donar/Donner, Lat. tonāre, Skr. तन्यति (tanyati), Pers. /tundar, Pashto taṇā
*túH₁s-ont- a massive number
(-> thousand)
Gm. þūsunt/tausend, Eng. þusend/thousand, Goth. þusundi, Lith. tūkstantis, Ltv. tūkstots, OCS tysǫšti, ON þúsund, Polish tysiąc, Russ. тысяча (tysjača), Toch. tumane/tmām

w[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*wadʰ- to pledge Lat. vas; vadis, Goth. wadi, ON veð, Eng. weddian/wed, Gm. wetti/Wette, Lith. vadas, Ltv. vadot
*wadʰ- to go, to wade Lat. vadere; vadare, vadum, ON vaða, Eng. wadan/wade, Gm. watan/waten
*wail- wolf Arm. gayl/kayl, Ir. fáel/faol, Gaul. vail
*wāt- to blow, inspire Gaul. uāteis, Ir. fáith, ON óðr; Oðinn; Oðinsdagr, Proto-Germanic *Wōdanaz, Skr. अपिवतति (apivatati), Eng. wōd/wood; Wōden/Woden; Wōdnesdæg/Wednesday, Gm. wuot/Wut; Wuotan/Wotan; Wuotanes tac/—, Av. aipivat
*webʰ- to weave Eng. wefan/weave, Gm. weban/weben, ON vefa, Gk. ὑφή (huphē), Pers. baftan/, Skr. उभ्नाति (ubhnāti), Toch. wäp/wāp, Av. ubdaēna, Pers. /bāfad, Alb. vegjë
*wobʰes- wasp Eng. wæps/wasp, Gm. wafsa/Wespe, Lat. vespa, OCS vosa, Russ. оса (osa), Polish osa, Lith. vapsa, Old Prussian wobse, Ir. foich/, Av. vawžaka, Kamviri ušpik
*wed wet *wód-r̥- "water": Eng. wæter/water, OCS voda, Russ. вода (voda), Gk. ὕδωρ (hudōr), Lat. unda, Lith. vanduo, Ltv. ūdens, Skr. उदन् (udan), Alb. ujë, Ir. uisce/uisge, Hitt. watar, Arm. get/ked, Toch. wär/war, Umbrian utur, Goth. watō, Welsh gwer, ON vatn, Kashmiri odūr, Thrac. udrēnas, Gm. wazzar/Wasser, Phryg. bedu, Polish woda, Old Prussian wundan
*ud-ro- " otter": Skr. उद्र (udra), Lat. lutra, Av. udra, Ir. /odar; uydr/; odoirne/ (ūdra/udris?), OCS vydra, Russ. выдра (vydra), Gk. ὕδρος (hudros), Eng. oter/otter, Gm. ottar/Otter, ON otr, Lith. ūdra, Osset. wyrd
*udero- "belly": Lat. uterus; venter, Skr. उदर (udara), Av. udaras, Lith. vėdaras, Ltv. vēders, Gm. wanast(?)
*wedʰ- to lead Russ. веду (vedu), Lith. vesti, Ltv. vads, Ir. fedid/fedim, Av. vāðayeiti, Hitt. uwate, OCS vedǫ, Polish wieść, Welsh arweddu, Old Prussian west
*weh₁- to blow Eng. weder/weather, Gm. waian/wehen, ON vindr, Lat. ventus, Skr. वाति (vāti), Gk. ἄημι (aēmi), Av. vāiti, Hitt. uwantiš, Lith. vėjas, Ltv. vējš, Old Prussian wins, Goth. winds, Toch. want/yente, OCS vĕjetŭ, Russ. веять (vejat'), Polish wiać, Welsh awel
*weid- to see, know Skr. विद् (vid), Av. vaēða, Gk. ιδεί (idei), Lat. vidēre, Russ. ведать (vedat'), Phryg. wit-, Eng. witan/wit, Gm. wizzan/wissen, Arm. gitem/kidem, Kashmiri vūčhūn, Polish widzieć; wiedzieć, ON vita, Goth. weitan, Ir. fis/fis, Gaul. Vindomagus, Welsh gwyn, Lith. vaidintis, Old Prussian widdai, OCS vidĕti
*weik- to choose Skr. विनक्ति (vinakti), Av. avavaēk, Lat. victima, Goth. weihan, Eng. wēoh/—, ON vé, Gm. wīhen/weihen
*weik- victory Lith. veikti, Ltv. veikt, OCS vĕkŭ, Russ. век (vek), ON veig, Gm. wīgan/—, Ir. fichim/, Gaul. Ordovices, Welsh gwych, Eng. wīgan/—, Goth. weihan, Arm. vēg/vēk, Lat. vincere, Oscan vincter, Polish wiek
*weis- to sprout Lat. virēre; viridis, Eng. wīse/, Gm. wīsa/Wiese, ON vísir, Lith. veisti, Ltv. viest
*weiḱ- village Gm. weihs/, Lith. viešas, Ltv. viesis, Russ. весь (ves'), Av. vīs, Alb. vis, Skr. विश् (viś), Lat. vīcus, Gk. οἶκος (oikos), Polish wieś, Old Prussian waispattin, Toch. /īke, OCS vĭsĭ
*wekʷ- to speak Gk. ἔπος (epos), Skr. वक्ति (vakti), Av. vačah, Gm. giwahanen/erwähnen, Old Prussian wackītwei, Toch. wak/wek, ON váttr, Lat. vōx, Umbrian subocau, Ir. foccul/, Welsh gwaethi, Gaul. Vepolitanos, Hitt. uek
*wel to wish, desire, want Eng. willan/will, Gm wellan/wollen, Goth. wiljan, ON vilja, OCS. voljo; voliti, Russ. воля (volja), Lith. velyti, Welsh gwell, Lat. volo, Gk. ἔλδομαι (éldomai); ἔλρομαι (élpomai), Skt. वृणोति (vṛṇoti) Av. verenav-
*wel- wool Eng. wull/wool, Gm. wolla/Wolle, ON ull, Goth. wulla, Skr. ऊर्णा (ūrā), Av. varənā, Lat. lāna, Gk. ληνός (lēnos), OCS vlŭna, Russ. волна (volna), Polish wełna, Lith. vilna, Ltv. vilna, Ir. olan/olann, Welsh gwlan, Hitt. hulana, Old Prussian wilnis, Pers. /gurs
*wem- to vomit Lat. vomere, Gk. ἐμέω (emeō), Skr. वमति (vamati), Av. vam, Lith. vemti, Ltv. vemt, ON váma, Old Prussian wynis, Pers. /vātāk
*wer- cover *wer-no- "ram": Skr. उरण (uraa), Arm. gan/kan, Gk. arnos,
*werh₃- to speak Lith. vardas, Ltv. vārds, Eng. word/word, Russ. врать (vrat'), Skr. व्रत (vrata), Av. urvāta, Hitt. ueria, Gk. εἴρω (eirō), Gm. wort/Wort, ON orð, Goth. waurd, Old Prussian wīrds, Ir. fordat/, Umbrian uerfalem, OCS vračĭ, Lat. verbum
*wes- to dress Alb. vesh, Eng. werian/wear, Gm. werian/Wehr, Goth. wasjan, ON verja, Lat. vestis, Gk. ἐνδύομαι (enduomai), Arm. zgenum/zkenum, Skr. वस्ते (vaste), Av. vastē, Hitt. waš, Toch. wäs/wäs
*wes- to feast Hitt. weši, Lat. vescor, Av. vastra, Skr. अनुवावसे (anuvāvase), Welsh gwest, Gm. wist/, Ir. fíach/, Goth. wisan, ON vist, Eng. wesan/, Lith. švest, Polish wesele
*wet- year Gk. ἔτος (etos), Skr. वत्स (vatsa), Eng. weðer/wether, Gm. widar/Widder, Goth. wiþrus, ON veðr, Hitt. witt, Alb. vjet, Ir. fethim/feithim, Corn. guis, Lith. vetuša, OCS vetŭxŭ, Russ. ветхий (vetxij), Polish wiotchy, Lat. vetus, Oscan Vezkeí
*weǵ- lively Lat. vegeō, Eng. wacan/wake, Skr. वाज (vāja), Av. vazra, Toch. wasir/wasir, Gm. wahhēn/wachen, Goth. wakan, ON vaka, Pers. vazrka/buzurg
*weǵʰ- to ride Eng. wegan/weigh, Lat. vehō, Oscan veia, Umbrian ar'veitu, Gk. ekhos/, Skr. वहति (vahati), Av. vazaiti, Russ. везти (vezti), Polish wieźć, Alb. vjedh; udhë, Gm. biwegan/bewegen, ON vega, Goth. gawigan, Ir. fén/, Welsh gwain, Lith. vežti, Ltv. vest, Old Prussian vessis, Umbrian ařveitu, Gaul. Uecturius, Toch. wkä/yakne, OCS vezǫ
*wi apart, away Skr. वि (vi), Av. vi-, Hitt. na-wi 'not yet', Eng. wið/with; wid/wide, Gm. widar/wieder; wit/weit, Goth. wiþra, ON viðr; viðr
*wiH₁-ḱm̥t-íH₁ twenty Lat. vīgintī, Arm. k'san, Alb. njëzet/njizet, Gaul. vocontio, Gk. eikosi, Av. visaiti, Ir. fiche/fiche, Kashmiri vuh, Pers. /bēst, Kamviri vici, Skr. विङ्शति (viśati), Toch. wiki/ikä, Welsh ugain
*winǵʰ- elm Alb. vidh, Russ. вяз (vjaz), Lith. vinkšna, Ltv. vīksna, Eng. wice/Wych Elm, Kurd. viz, Polish wiąz
*worn- raven Lith. varnas, Russ. ворона (vorona), Polish wrona, Toch. —/wrauña
*wred- root Russ. вред (vred), Eng. wyrt/wort, Gm. wirz/Wurz, Lat. rādīx, Gk. rhiza, Alb. rrënjë/rrânzë, Welsh gwraidd, Ir. frém/fréamh, Goth. vaurts, ON urt, Toch. /witsako, Pers. /riše(h)
*wl̥kʷo- wolf Lith. vilkas, Ltv. vilks, Eng. wulf/wolf, Lat. lupus, Gm. wolf/Wolf, Gk. lukos, Alb. ujk; ulk, Skr. वृक (vka), Av. vehrka-, Toch. —/walkwe, Pers. varka/gorg, Old Prussian wilkis, Goth. wulfs, ON úlfr, OCS vlĭkŭ, Russ. волк (volk), Polish wilk, Luwian walwa, Welsh gweilgi
*wr̥-mi- worm Lat. vermis, Goth. waurms, Eng. wyrm/worm, Arm. vord/vort, Lith. varmas, Welsh gwraint, Gk. rhomos, Gm. wurm/Wurm, ON ormr, Old Prussian wormyan

y[bewerken]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*yeg- ice Eng. gicel/icicle, ON jaki, Gm. ichil/gicht, Ir. aig/oighear, Welsh ia, Lith. iža, Ltv. ieze, Russ. икра (ikra)
*yeh₁kwr̥- liver Skr. यकृत् (yakṛt), Lith. jeknos, Latv. aknas, Av. yākarə, Lat. iecur, Irish iuchair/iuchair, Gk. ἥπαρ (hēpar), Russ. икра (ikra), Kamviri iâñi, Persian /jegar
*yeh₁r- year, season Goth. jēr, Eng. gēar/year, Av. yārə, Gk. ὤρα (ōra), Lat. hōrnus, Gm. jar/Jahr, ON ár, 'Persian dušiyaram/, Lith. jōrė, OCS jara, Russ. яровой (jarovoj), Polish jar
* yoke Eng. geoc/yoke, Skr. योग (yoga), Hitt. yukan, Lat. iungere, Gk. ζυγός/ (zugos/), Av. yuj, Arm. luc/ludz, Toch. yuk-/yuk-, Polish igo, Lith. jungas, Latv. jugt, Gm. joh/Joch, Goth. juk, OCS igo, Russ. иго (igo), Gaulish Veriugodnumnus, Kamviri iu, ON ok, Persian /yoġ, Welsh iau, Irish cuing/cuing
*yenh₂ter- brother-in-law's wife Lat. ianitrīcēs, Gk. εἰνατήρ (einatēr), Lith. jentė, Ltv. ietere, Russ. ятровь (jatrov'), Skr. यातृ (yātṛ), Kamviri iâri, Arm. ner, Phryg. ianatera, Polish jątrew

Languages with abbreviations[bewerken]

Resources[bewerken]

External links[bewerken]